In a classic paper by the late Yale historian of
science, Derek De Solla Price (1965), based
mainly on the study of citations in a single scientific
research field, it was shown how citations in
a developing research area have a strong
'immediacy effect'.1 Citation was found to be at
a maximum for papers about two-and-a-half
years old, and the 'major work of a paper ... [is]
finished after 10 years', as judged by citations.
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy:
– First real IR spectra measured by Abney and Festing in 1880’s
– Technique made into a routine analytical method between 1903-
1940 (especially by Coblentz at the US NBS)
– IR spectroscopy through most of the 20th century is done with
dispersive (grating) instruments, i.e. monochromators
– Fourier Transform (FT) IR instruments become common in the
1980’s, led to a great increase in sensitivity and resolution
– In 1928, C. V.
According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts, dams, and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered...
Humankind’s fascination with Mars predates
recorded history. The bright planet with the reddish tint
is unique among the other celestial objects. Tycho
Brahe’s observations of its unpredictable motion were
deciphered by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century
as he developed his laws of planetary motion.
Galileo trained his telescope on Mars and saw it as a
disk in 1610. Later in the 1600s, Christiaan Huygens
and Gian Cassini drew the first maps of the Martian
Applications of mechanical engineering are found in the records of many ancient and medieval societies throughout the globe. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287 BC–212 BC) deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun (200–265 AD) invented a chariot with differential gears.
Although Earth is billions of years old, geology—literally
meaning the study of Earth—is a relatively new science, having
grown from seeds of natural science and natural history planted
during the Enlightenment era of the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries. In 1807, the founding of the Geological Society of
London, the first learned society devoted to geology, marked an
important turning point for the science (some say its nascence).
One of the greatest diamond exploration success stories of the twentieth century was that of Russia. In the
1930s Russian explorers recognized geological similarities between the ancient bedrock in Siberia and some
diamond-rich parts of southern Africa. They began prospecting in the Sakha region and in 1954 discovered
the first kimberlite pipe in the region, called Zarnitsa (Dawn); more than 500 additional kimberlites were
discovered during the next two years.
The writer, having resided in the village of Niagara Falls for more than a third of a century, has had
opportunity to become thoroughly acquainted with the locality, and to study it with constantly increasing
interest and admiration.