This paper presents a Bayesian decision framework that performs automatic story segmentation based on statistical modeling of one or more lexical chain features. Automatic story segmentation aims to locate the instances in time where a story ends and another begins. A lexical chain is formed by linking coherent lexical items chronologically. A story boundary is often associated with a significant number of lexical chains ending before it, starting after it, as well as a low count of chains continuing through it.
This paper presents a chunking-based discriminative approach to full parsing. We convert the task of full parsing into a series of chunking tasks and apply a conditional random ﬁeld (CRF) model to each level of chunking. The probability of an entire parse tree is computed as the product of the probabilities of individual chunking results. The parsing is performed in a bottom-up manner and the best derivation is efﬁciently obtained by using a depthﬁrst search algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that this simple parsing framework produces a fast and reasonably accurate parser.
Th e prime objective for writing the fi rst edition of this book was to provide an up-to-date text
at a reasonable cost. We also felt that there was a signifi cant gap in the literature for a book that
off ered a broad strategic framework as well as a clear and straightforward description of the
basic functions and elements related to logistics and distribution.
In the second edition of the book, published in 2000, we provided a signifi cant revision of the
The forward process makes use of the information contained in the
hypothesis A. The backward process tries to find a chain of statements leading
to the fact that the conclusion B is true.
With the backward process, you start with the statement B that you are
trying to conclude is true. By asking and answering key questions, you derive
a sequence of new statements with the property that if the sequence of new
statements is true, then B is true. The backward process continues until you
obtain the statement A or until you can no longer ask and/or answer the key
It is widely accepted that technology is one of the forces driving economic growth.
Although more and more new technologies have emerged, various evidence shows
that their performances were not as high as expected. In both academia and practice
there are still many questions about what technologies to adopt and how to manage
This book is an extension of “Probability for Finance” to multi-period financial models, either in the discrete or continuous-time framework. It describes the most important stochastic processes used in finance in a pedagogical way, especially Markov chains, Brownian motion and martingales. It also shows how mathematical tools like filtrations, Itô’s lemma or Girsanov theorem should be understood in the framework of financial models. It also provides many illustrations coming from the financial literature....
The Internet is an extraordinary platform for innovation, economic
growth, and social communication. Using the Internet, entrepreneurs
reach global markets, political groups organize, and major companies
manage their supply chains and deliver services to their customers.
Simply stated, the Internet is becoming the central nervous system of our
information economy and society.
Over the last 15 years, personal computers, mobile phones, and other
devices have transformed how we access and use information.
Management Control the approaches, methodologies and frameworks applied by an agency to plan and
control the implementation of change initiatives for which it is responsible, in this context new policy
Program (or Programme) a temporary flexible structure created to coordinate, direct and oversee the
implementation of a set of related projects and activities in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to
strategic policy objectives.
While many antibodies with strong antigen-binding affinity have stable
variable regions with a strong antibody heavy chain variable region frag-ment (VH)⁄antibody light chain variable region fragment (VL) interaction,
the anti-lysozyme IgG HyHEL-10 has a fairly strong affinity, yet a very
weak VH⁄VLinteraction strength, in the absence of antigen.
Late in 2005, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, U.S. newspapers were filled with
speculation as to whether New Orleans would continue to exist as a great and unique
American city. Levee and floodwall failure had inundated large parts of the city and resulted
in more than 1,500 deaths and catastrophic damage to property and the economy. In
2011, extreme amounts of precipitation, inadequate levees, and possible mismanagement of
reservoirs contributed to widespread flooding around Bangkok, Thailand.
This paper examines the incentives and disincentives for the adoption of Good Agricultural
Practices (GAPs) by farmers and by downstream handlers of farm outputs in developing
countries. GAPs cover a diverse set of objectives and have been developed by a wide array of
interest groups from private supply chain-driven systems tied to individual retailers, and
industry-wide systems driven by retailer or producer associations, to programmes developed
within national policy frameworks or promoted by international agencies....
Using an applications perspective Thermodynamic Models for Industrial Applications provides a unified framework for the development of various thermodynamic models, ranging from the classical models to some of the most advanced ones. Among these are the Cubic Plus Association Equation of State (CPA EoS) and the Perturbed Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT). These two advanced models are already in widespread use in industry and academia, especially within the oil and gas, chemical and polymer industries....
The recent financial crisis exposed a number of weaknesses in the housing finance sector in
the United States (U.S.). The resulting problems can be sourced to incentives guiding
decisions in the funding and loan management chains, to incentives driving households’
repayment and default decisions under the personal bankruptcy framework, and to incentives
for loan servicers and investors to choose foreclosure over loan modification.
After this introductory chapter follows an outline of the project approach in
chapter 2. The reversed food chain thinking is presented and the parallel
development of the 6th
Framework Program and ERA is brought into the
analysis. Chapters 3 to 5 cover the resulting research priorities as developed
in the project. Chapter 3 addresses consumer science, chapter 4 deals with
issues in the area of food safety and health while chapter 5 focus on specific
priorities in basic food science. A concluding remark in chapter 6 finishes this
Increasingly, the ME industry is required to cope with more severe market fluctuations
than most other branches of industry. As on of the prime supplying industries of capital
goods, it is highly dependent on the investment activity of the purchasing companies,
which are highly sensitive to developments in the economy as a whole. This applies
above all to industry’s investments in equipment and machinery, into which most ME
products flow either directly or indirectly.
Online forum discussions often contain vast amounts of questions that are the focuses of discussions. Extracting contexts and answers together with the questions will yield not only a coherent forum summary but also a valuable QA knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a general framework based on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance.
Stochastic Optimality Theory (Boersma, 1997) is a widely-used model in linguistics that did not have a theoretically sound learning method previously. In this paper, a Markov chain Monte-Carlo method is proposed for learning Stochastic OT Grammars. Following a Bayesian framework, the goal is ﬁnding the posterior distribution of the grammar given the relative frequencies of input-output pairs. The Data Augmentation algorithm allows one to simulate a joint posterior distribution by iterating two conditional sampling steps. ...