Challenging evaluation

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  • This book addresses the evolutionary stage of Chemical Engineering and provides an overview to the state of the art and technological advancements. Chemical Engineering applications have always been challenging. Optimization of plausible solutions to problems in economic manner through technology is worth. The script has been designed to enable the reader to access the desired knowledge on fundamentals and advancements in Chemical Engineering in a single text.

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  • Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG may be used clinically for the diagnosis of neuromuscular problems and for assessing biomechanical and motor control deficits and other functional disorders. Furthermore, it can be used as a control signal for interfacing with orthotic and/or prosthetic devices or other rehabilitation assists.

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  • Natural language generation (NLG) systems are notoriously hard to evaluate. On the one hand, simply comparing system outputs to a gold standard is not appropriate because there can be multiple generated outputs that are equally good, and finding metrics that account for this variability and produce results consistent with human judgments and task performance measures is difficult (Belz and Gatt, 2008; Stent et al., 2005; Foster, 2008). On the other hand, lab-based evaluations with human subjects to assess each aspect of the system’s functionality are expensive and time-consuming. ...

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  • The U.S. Navy spends nearly $4 billion annually on maintaining ships. Most of this work is done at public shipyards that perform some of the most complex tasks the Department of Defense must accomplish. Shipyard managers face some unique challenges. The shipyards are required to be flexible enough to meet both

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  • We demonstrate a web-based environment for development and testing of different pedestrian route instruction-giving systems. The environment contains a City Model, a TTS interface, a game-world, and a user GUI including a simulated street-view. We describe the environment and components, the metrics that can be used for the evaluation of pedestrian route instruction-giving systems, and the shared challenge which is being organised using this environment.

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  • Question answering research has only recently started to spread from short factoid questions to more complex ones. One significant challenge is the evaluation: manual evaluation is a difficult, time-consuming process and not applicable within efficient development of systems. Automatic evaluation requires a corpus of questions and answers, a definition of what is a correct answer, and a way to compare the correct answers to automatic answers produced by a system.

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  • The GIVE Challenge is a recent shared task in which NLG systems are evaluated over the Internet. In this paper, we validate this novel NLG evaluation methodology by comparing the Internet-based results with results we collected in a lab experiment. We find that the results delivered by both methods are consistent, but the Internetbased approach offers the statistical power necessary for more fine-grained evaluations and is cheaper to carry out.

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  • We present a large-scale meta evaluation of eight evaluation measures for both single-document and multi-document summarizers. To this end we built a corpus consisting of (a) 100 Million automatic summaries using six summarizers and baselines at ten summary lengths in both English and Chinese, (b) more than 10,000 manual abstracts and extracts, and (c) 200 Million automatic document and summary retrievals using 20 queries.

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  • Importance evaluation is one of the most challenging problems in the field of text processing. In the paper we focus on the notion of importance from a computational standpoint, and we propose a procedural, rule-based approach to importance evaluation. T h i s novel approach is supported by a prototype experimental system, called importance evaluator, that can deal with descriptive texts taken from computer science l i t e r a t u r e on operating systems. The evaluator relies on a set of importance rules that are used to assign importance values to the different parts...

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  • The relationship between political democracy and economic growth has been a center of debate in the past fifty years. A corpus of cross-country research has shown that the theoretical divide on the impact of democratic versus authoritarian regimes on growth is matched by ambiguous empirical results, resulting in a consensus of an inconclusive relationship. Through this paper we challenge this consensus.

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  • One of the greatest challenges faced by the food scientist is man himself with his highly sensitive oral equipment for evaluating food texture. The recognition of this challenge leads immediately to two questions: ‘How can we characterize the texture of foodstuffs in a manner that will reflect human perceptions?’ and, then, ‘How may we preserve, formulate and process products in a way that will be acceptable to the consumer?’

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  • After more than a decade of working with various revisions and editions of this book, I am amazed at the uniform spirit of goodwill and cooperation given me by many people. Without that spirit, this book would not have seen the light of day or continued helping people. My first editor, Ralph “Jake” Warner, showed infinite patience in working with a first-time author. My second editor, Lisa Goldoftas, challenged every punctuation mark and sentence structure while gracefully deferring to my knowledge about the subject.

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  • Alpine destinations attract leisure travellers for winter sports, such as skiing, as well as holidaymakers who appreciate natural attractions in all seasons. They also attract activity holidaymakers such as naturalists, mountain cyclists, walkers etc. Although the majority of alpine sports are for recreational purposes a wide range of expeditions and challenges are organised for mountains such as the Everest or the Alps. Lakes may also offer facilities for sea sports such as surfing and skiing.

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  • CHEMICAL ENGINEERING occupies a special place among scientific and engineering disciplines. It is an engineering discipline with deep roots in the world of atoms, molecules, and molecular transformations. The principles and approaches that make up chemical engineering have a long and rich history of contributions to the nation's technological needs. Chemical engineers play a key role in industries as varied as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics, ceramics, primary metals, glass, and specialty chemicals.

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  • Solid waste management generates big challenges for society due to its large variability in production and composition, and because of its sanitary and environmental impacts. To contribute in facing this situation, this book includes a worldwide overview of experiences and conceptual and technical developments attained through research and development projects. In addition to minimizing generation, considered as the most desirable practice, it includes alternatives of valuation for potentially recoverable waste and strategies to reduce final conditioning and disposition risks.

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  • In recent years, completion of the sequencing of the human genome as well as the genomes of dozens of other organisms and subsequent development of tools for comprehensive analysis of other cellular constituents have revolutionized biology. These new technologies, referred to broadly as “genomics,” have integrated biologic sciences with information sciences and engineering.

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  • The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) was established in 1958 with the mission to improve the quality of biology education at all levels. Not long after the inception of the organization, our mission was expanded to include the improvement of science education, not just biology education. In 2000, we further articulated this mission to describe the work we would do in curriculum develop- ment, professional development, and research and evaluation.

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  • Computing the usual productivity measures requires data on the value of transactions and either prices or quantities. In the final research study of this volume, Erwin Diewert notes that Canada lacks direct price and quantity measures for many important services industries. Other nations also have this problem. As a result, the usual productivity indexes cannot be evaluated properly for those services industries, nor can we get a complete picture of productivity performance for the economy as a whole.

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  • There were no patients in whom water intoxication developed or who needed transfusions perioperatively. Bladder neck contracture, which developed three to four months postoperatively, was the most frequent complication (49 cases, 32.7%). Other complications included pubic osteitis (2 cases), bladder tamponade (2 case), acute epididymitis (3 case), pulmonary embolism (1 case), and rectourethral fistula (1 case). Erectile function was preserved after the first operation in 26 (60.5%) of the evaluated 38 sexually active patients.

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  • Mental health and legal professionals face formidable challenges in applying their knowledge and expertise to the criminal justice system. This book addresses psycholegal issues from both law (e.g., statutes, case law, and legal theory) and clinical-forensic (e.g., empirically based knowledge and specialized methods) perspectives.Within the criminal justice system, it considers the major legal, empirical, and forensic issues found in the law–mental health interface.

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