This is a book about coal gasification and its related technologies. The relationship
between these technologies is shown in Figure 0.1. The gasification process begins with
a viable feedstock. In this book, we focus on one of those feedstocks that must go
through the gasification process, coal.
content decreased (Agblevor et al. 1994). The equivalents of chlorine per equivalent of alkali or
alkaline earth metals increased from 3.4 to 8.5 during this filtration. This suggests that the
residual inorganics may be present as chlorides and that much of the chlorine may be in solution.
Chloride ions in solution will have an adverse effect on corrosion of many metals, including
stainless steels such as SS304.
Compared to coal and many crude oils, biomass has a low sulfur content.
Daniel et al. (1997) further reﬁne style-based performance mea-
sures by examining the actual holdings of mutual funds, and measuring
the characteristics of the stocks held by the fund. The characteristics
include the market capitalization or size, a measure of value (the ratio
of book value to market value), and the return over the previous year.
For a given fund, the OE portfolio is formed by matching the char-
acteristics of the portfolio held by the fund with “passive” portfolios
constructed to have the same characteristics....
■ The acknowledgment contains a statement certifying
that the charity intends to give or sell the vehicle to a
needy individual at a price significantly below fair market
value and that the gift or sale is in direct furtherance of the
charity’s charitable purpose of relieving the poor and dis
tressed or the underprivileged who are in need of a means
of transportation. This exception will not apply if the char
ity merely applies the proceeds from the sale of the vehicle
to a needy individual for any charitable purpose. ...
Human disc-large homolog (hDlg), also known as synapse-associated
protein 97, is a scaffold protein, a member of the membrane-associated
guanylate kinase family, implicated in neuronal synapses and epithelial–
epithelial cell junctions whose expression and function remains poorly char-acterized in most tissues, particularly in the vasculature.
Recent studies suggest that diverse types of intronic and small
non-coding RNAs play pivotal regulatory roles, often as a part of
ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, in a variety of cellular proces-ses such as transcription and translation. Thus, isolation and char-acterization of novel RNP complexes, such as micro RNPs, small
nuclear RNPs, small nucleolar RNPs, and heteronuclear RNPs,
are crucial to understand the biological systems.
a-Conotoxins that target the neuronal nicotinic acetylcho-line receptor have a range of potential therapeutic applica-tions and are valuable probes for examining receptor
subtype selectivity. The three-dimensional structures of
about half of the knownneuronal specifica-conotoxins have
helical region braced by two conserved disulfide bonds.
These disulfide bonds define the two-loop framework char-acteristic for a-conotoxins, CCXmCXnC, where loop 1
comprisesfourresidues(m¼4) and loop 2 between three
and seven residues (n¼3, 6 or 7). ...
Antibacterial peptides were isolated fromhuman peripheral
granulocytes of a healthy donor who had been treated with
granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and cortisol.
Peptides were solubilized in acidi®ed chloroform/methanol,
and partitioned in chloroform/methanol/water. Water-soluble polypeptides were separated by cation-exchange and
reversed-phase chromatography. Several previously char-acterized antibacterial polypeptides were identi®ed; defen-sins 1±3, defensin 4, lysozyme, eosinophil cationic protein,
and calgranulin A. ...
Alzheimer’s disease and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease are the best-known
examples of a group of diseases known as the amyloidoses. They are char-acterized by the extracellular deposition of toxic, insoluble amyloid fibrils.
Knowledge of the structure of these fibrils is essential for understanding
the process of pathology of the amyloidoses and for the rational design of
drugs to inhibit or reverse amyloid formation.
Assembly of the components of the thylakoidDpH-dependent/Tat protein transport machinery was analyzed
in vitro. Upon incubation with intact chloroplasts, precur-sors to all three components, Hcf106, cpTatC and Tha4,
were imported into the organelle and assembled into char-acteristic endogenous complexes. In particular, all of the
imported cpTatC and approximately two-thirds of the
imported Hcf106functionally assembled into 700 kDa
complexes capable of binding Tat pathway precursor pro-teins.
The energy demand for the endothermic
gasification reaction is met by the combustion of residual char in the fast bed combustor.
The circulating bed materials act as heat carrier between the two fluidized beds and
maintain the required temperature in gasifier. Therefore, the hydrodynamics of such a dual
fluidized beds system needs to be thoroughly understood for successful design and
operation of the system for industrial application.