Characteristic radiation

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  • The characteristics lines in X-ray spectra result from electronic transitions between inner atomic orbitals. The X-ray spectra for most heavy elements are much simpler than the UV/Vis spectra observed in ICP-OES, for example. (Only a few lines!!!) Big difference between X-ray and UVVis: The radiation is ionizing, and doesn’t just excite electrons to higher levels. Moseley’s law: Predicts the basic relationship of atom number and the frequency of the characteristic lines

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  • Over the past few decades numerous studies have shown an alarming increase in the concentration of atmospheric particular matter called aerosols resulting from a variety of human activities, ranging from agricultural to combustion of fossil fuels. Besides having serious impacts on the health of all living creatures, these particles can affect planetary radiation budget. Consequences of this change include global temperature shifts and the altering of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

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  • This chapter reviews some of the basic magnitudes of solar radiation and some of the basics of PSpice. A brief description of a photovoltaic system is followed by definitions of spectral irradiance, irradiance and solar radiation. Basic commands and syntax of the sentences most commonly used in this book are shortly summarized and used to write PSpice files for the AM1 SG and AM0 sun spectra, which are used to plot the values of the spectral irradiance as a function of the wavelength and compare them with a black body radiation.

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  • Physical measurement dimensions, such as temperature or pressure and tensile forces, can affect glass fibres and locally change the characteristics of light transmission in the fibre. As a result of the damping of the light in the quartz glass fibres through scattering, the location of an external physical effect can be determined so that the optical fibre can be employed as a linear sensor. Light scattering, also known as Raman scattering, occurs in the optical fibre.

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  • One of the most important things in life is having a place where we really feel at home. It makes no difference whether it we own it or rent it or whether it is an apartment or a house: what matters is the sense of security and wellbeing we feel within its walls. The right lighting concept plays a crucial role here. Science defines light as the band of electromagnetic radiation that is perceptible by the human eye. The designer sees it as a tool offering innumerable possibilities for crafting living space to suit personal needs and preferences....

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  • In section 2, there is an illustration of the source and types of industrial contaminants in many parts of the world. It is essential to understand the characteristic of industrial discharge in order to have an idea for ways to reduce or remove the contaminants for a sustainable tomorrow. It is required to understand the impacts of industrial waste to the environment (freshwater, seawater, land) in order to design highly efficient treatment and developing effective remedial methods.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Radiation Oncology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: A comparison of dose-response characteristics of four NTCP models using outcomes of radiationinduced optic neuropathy and retinopathy...

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  • The tests described in this document consist of a series of laboratory technical tests and an outdoor functional test of the beacon transmitting to the satellite. Manufacturers are encouraged to conduct preliminary laboratory tests on their beacons, but are cautioned not to radiate signals to the satellite. If open air radiation of 406 MHz signals should be necessary, the manufacturer must coordinate and receive approval for the test from the appropriate national or regional MCC.

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  • Monitoring any portion of the Internet address space reveals incessant activity. This holds even when monitoring trafc sent to unused addresses, which we term “background radiation.” Background radiation reects fundamentally nonproductive trafc, either malicious (ooding backscatter, scans for vulnerabilities, worms) or benign (miscongurations). While the general presence of background radiation is well known to the network operator community, its nature has yet to be broadly characterized.

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  • An additional method to show that the FI results depend on factor tilts is to replicate the FI returns with a portfolio of indices that contain the similar factor loadings. We have experimented with several such portfolios. While only one of these is presented, we find that there are a variety of ways to produce similar (or even larger) returns than FI. We agree with Arnott et. al., that FI is not simply a value portfolio. It has characteristics of both greater value and smaller size than a capitalization weighted portfolio. If we are correct...

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  • We studied theoretically and experimentally the transformation, attenuation, and setup due to shoaling and breaking of internal waves in a two-layer fluid system on a uniform slope. An image processing technique was used to illustrate 2D instantaneous displacements of density interface. These results were compared with the calculated values by using the method of characteristics, the simple shoaling model with energy dissipation, and the momentum balance equation based on a radiation stress concept.

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  • Introduction to LEDs: How LEDs work + some points. Comparison with other sources of light. LED in communication. Blue &White LED technologies. How they are made? Their application? Brief about blue laser? Stands for light emitting diode. Semiconductor device: p-n junction forward-biased.current emits incoherent narrow spectrum light (due to recombination in transition region near the junction.) Color of the emitted light depends on the chemical of the semiconducting material used. (Near-ultraviolet, visible or infrared.)...

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  • First off, it’s all about the lumens. Lumens are the visible light given off by a source, and they are the ultimate goal. Wattage has often been confused with lumens, thanks to how incandescent bulbs are rated (everyone knows that a 60W bulb is not as bright as a 100W one), but more efficient lighting technologies have greatly changed the relationship between wattage (essentially power usage) and lumens (light output). For example, an incandescent might operate at about 12-15 lumens-per-watt (lm/W), while an LED bulb will be in the range of 40-50, a much greater luminous efficacy...

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  • The electromagnetic power is generated and radiated by antennas. Timevarying current radiates electromagnetic waves (radiated electromagnetic fields). Radiation pattern, beam width, directivity, and other major characteristics can be studied using Maxwell’s equations, see Section 2.2. We use the vectors of the electric field intensity E, electric flux density D, magnetic field intensity H, and magnetic flux density B. The constitutive equations are D = εE and B = µH where ε is the permittivity; µ is the permiability. It was shown in Section 2.

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  • In this chapter, we will find out how to get the most solar energy out of the sun by considering the time, the altitude angle, the radiation and the photovoltaic (PV) materials. A simple PV model helps to understand the mechanism of energy conversion - solar to electricity. We will further use a simple equivalent circuit to represent a PV cell to investigate its current-voltage characteristics.

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  • A basic characteristic of a vehicle structural response in crash testing and model simulation is the “crash signature,” commonly referred to as the crash pulse [1] (numbers refer to references at the end of each chapter). This is the deceleration time history at a point in the vehicle during impact. The crash pulse at a point on the rocker panel at the B-pillar is presumed to identify the significant structural behavior and the gross motion of the vehicle in a frontal impact. Other locations, such as the radiator and the engine, are frequently chosen to record the crash pulse...

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  • In this book, the performance characteristics of distributed feedback semiconductor laser diodes and optical tunable filters based on DFB laser structures have been investigated. As discussed in Chapter 1, these lasers can be used as optical sources and local oscillators in coherent optical communication networks, in which a stable single mode (in both the transverse plane and the longitudinal direction) and narrow spectral linewidth become crucial.

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  • TELECOMMUNICATION TRANSMISSION MEDIA In this chapter the characteristics of the media in which the transmission of signals takes place will be discussed. It so happens that we humans basically communicate through speech=hearing and by sight. Human hearing is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and we can see only the portion of radiation spectrum from about 4:3 Â 1014 Hz (infrared; l ¼ 7 Â 10À7 m) to approximately 7:5 Â 1014 Hz (ultraviolet; l ¼ 4 Â 10À7 m). These communication channels occupy only small portions of the detectable frequency spectrum which has no lower boundary but has an upper...

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