Xem 1-20 trên 82 kết quả Chemical aspects
  • Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.

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  • The first edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1989) was written to bridge the gap between toxicology and chemistry. It defined toxicological chemistry as the science that deals with the chemical nature and reactions of toxic substances, their origins and uses, and the chemical aspects of their exposure, transformation, and elimination by biological systems. It emphasized the chemical formulas, structures, and reactions of toxic substances. The second edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1992) was significantly enlarged and increased in scope compared to the first edition.

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  • Explosives and propellants contain considerable chemical energy that can be converted into rapid expansion. In contrast to the simple burning of a fuel, explosives and propellants are self-contained and do not need an external supply of oxygen via air. Since their energy content inherently creates the risk of accidental triggering of the explosive reaction, the correct synthesis, formulation, and handling during production and use are of utmost importance for safety, necessitating specialist knowledge on energetic materials, their characteristics, handling and applications.

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  • Under the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative, which entered into force in 1995, the United States and its major trading partners eliminated tariffs on many pharmaceuticals, their derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used to make pharmaceuticals. The U.S. list of pharmaceutical products and chemical intermediates that are eligible for duty- free treatment under the agreement is presented in the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

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  • This book provides an insider ’ s view of the status of the fi ne chemical industry, as well as its outlook. It covers all aspects of this dynamic industry, with all of its stakeholders in mind, viz. employees, customers, suppliers, investors, students and educators, media representatives, neighboring communities, public offi cials, and anyone else who has an interest in this segment of the chemical industry. Safety, health, environmental, and regulatory issues are discussed only briefl y, as the related subjects are extensively covered in the specialized literature....

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  • Effective prediction of transport of chemical pollutants through a subsurface groundwater system and associated assessments of risk requires a valid “conceptual model” of the contaminant migration scenario. The classical contaminant conceptual model is one of a near- surface “leachable source zone” where chemical contaminant is leached, i.e. dissolved/solubilised, into water infiltrating through the source (Figure 4.2).

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  • Mapping and classification of chemical compound names are important aspects of the tasks of BioNLP. This paper introduces the architecture of a system for the syntactic and semantic analysis of such names. Our system aims at yielding both the denoted chemical structure and a classification of a given name. We employ a novel approach to the task which promises an elegant and efficient way of solving the problem. The proposed system differs significantly from existing systems, in that it is also able to deal with underspecifying names and class names. ...

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  • This article summarizes the main ideas of our lectures at the Ho Chi Minh City University of Education in March 2013. It is about aspects of chemical education, goals and problems of chemistry teaching in Germany and the importance of a sustainable and meaningful chemical education.

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  • This book stems from the author’s experience with a variety of problems on the fate, distribution, and toxicity of organic compounds in the aquatic environment. It became increasingly clear that the procedures for investigating these problems crossed the traditional boundaries of organic and analytical chemistry, microbiology, and biology, and after many years this resulted in the idea of selecting the relevant aspects of these and writing the present book

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  • Since the establishment of the conductive properties of intrinsic conductive polymers, a huge variety of basic and applied research has been carried out, involving different polymers, copolymers, blends, mixtures and composites. Thus, fundamental understanding of physical and chemical properties of these materials has been sought, while the applied aspects have advanced very rapidly, crossing the boundaries between disciplines. Today, the applications of conducting polymers in various fields such as neuroscience, nanotechnology and green chemistry, are easily found.

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  • "Under the right conditions and applications, evaporative air-conditioning (EAC) technologies can provide excellent cooling and ventilation with minimal energy consumption." Evaporative air-conditioning technologies are being used increasingly in residential and commercial applications worldwide. EAC technologies, which rely on water as a coolant rather than on chemical refrigerants, are economical to produce and use and have important environmental benefits.

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  • The Tertiary Publications Committee of the Chemical Society decided that after the appearance of Volume 5 the Specialist Periodical Report ‘Aliphatic Chem- istry’ should be replaced by two new titles: ‘General and Synthetic Methods’ and ‘Aliphatic and Related Natural Product Chemistry’. This latter will be produced biennially and this represents the first volume in this series.

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  • After the ground breaking discovery of electrical charge carrier transport in polymers in the late 1980s by Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa [1–3], who were awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2000, the question arose as to whether organic materials would also find applications as organic semiconductors. This field really started to attract major attention after the demonstration of the first organic light emitting device (OLED) in 1987 by Tang and Van Slyke [4].

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  • Hajo Zeeb reported having received remuneration from employment and con- sultancy for a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution. He also reported having received research support from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of the meeting. He confirmed having held an office or other position, paid or unpaid, where he may have been expected to represent interests or de- fend a position related to the subject air pollution.

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  • In theory, significant percentage of energy that can be used for human needs, before it is allowed to complete cycle of energy flow (that is to be dissipated to space). Some of it may be exploitation and use as a solar energy directly, but another way to use natural photosynthesis to create biomass can be viewed as a form of chemically stored solar energy energy.

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  • In this book, papers pertaining to resource management for sustainable agricultural development are presented in four parts divided into ten chapters. Part I discusses the usage of water and waste management for sustainable agricultural development including aspects like irrigation management to prevent soil and ground water salinization, production of solid fuel from oil palm waste, sustainable ecomaterials and biorefinery from agroindustrial waste, nonpoint pollution from agriculture and livestock activities on surface water....

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  • Plastics have had a significant influence on industrial, domestic and cultural aspects of everyday life in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. They represent advances in technology, illustrated by the dramatic growth in number and type of information storage media available since the 1970s, credit and payment cards, medical applications and food containers which can be taken directly from freezer to microwave oven to dinner table. The development of plastics reflects economic history.

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  • Broadly defined, an audit is a systematic review of operations and practices to ensure that relevant requirements are met.Traditionally, the term audit is associated with principles of accounting. Because of this,many people perceive a safety audit as an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) procedure or a financial accounting procedure. Indeed, the safety audit may apply similar methodolo- gies used in financial audits to mitigate safety risks within any facility or opera- tion. A sound business enterprise must check its safety practices as carefully as its accounting records.

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  • Social determinants of health have a strong influence on a wide diversity of health endpoints. The same is valid for the field of environmental health, as the exposure to environmental risk factors is also unequally distributed, and this unequal distribution is often related to social characteristics such as income, social status, employment and education, but also non-economic aspects such as gender, age or ethnicity. However, depending on the environmental risk and the “risk group” considered, the magnitude of inequality varies largely.

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  • But with other POPs the transition to safer alternatives will require more effort. Alternatives may be more expensive and their manufacture and use more complicated. That could put developing countries in an awkward spot – struggling from day to day, the world's poor tend to use what they can afford and what is available. So it is not enough for the Convention simply to say No to its target list of POPs: It must also help governments find a way to say Yes to replacement solutions. Take the case of DDT.

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