Crystallization is one of the most ancient and interdisciplinary topics of research known to mankind. Crystals can be organic or inorganic and may be produced from melts, liquid solutions, vapors or even in solid state. Notwithstanding its inherently high complexity, the crystallization process is part of our everyday lives, from ice making in our homes to the most state-of-the-art chemical and electronic industry.
We live in the age of biology—the human and many other organisms’
genomes have been sequenced and we are starting to understand the
function of the metabolic machinery responsible for life on our planet.
Thousands of new genes have been discovered, many of these coding for
enzymes of yet unknown function. Understanding the kinetic behavior
of an enzyme provides clues to its possible physiological role. From
a biotechnological point of view, knowledge of the catalytic properties
of an enzyme is required for the design of immobilized enzyme-based
Since their publication in 1996, the National
Science Education Standards (NSES) have been
at the center of the science education reform
movement in the United States. Prior to that
time, the National Science Foundation, other
government agencies, and private foundations
had supported the development of a plethora of
curricula and approaches to instruction; these
led to such R&D organizations as the Biological
Sciences Curriculum Study, the Chemical Bond
Approach, and the Physical Science Study
This chapter in cell death. will focus on non-surgical approaches namely radio- therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. There are limited facilities for radiotherapy as duction of free radicals cal personnel to plan treatment and operate these and break chemical bonds thus causing cell damage radiotherapy facilities in many of the less-resourced costly for many less-resourced locations.