Chemical bonding

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  • Synthetic organic chemistry is equivalent to systematic making and breaking chemical bonds of which the manipulation of carbon-carbon bonds plays an extraordinary role in construction of an organic molecule. Traditionally this chemistry was carried out in organic solutions, however, water or partially aqueous solvents gain more and more significance in organic synthesis recently. To attempt a comprehensive description of this field would be a hopless venture these days, and this chapter gives only examples of the most important ways of carbon-carbon bond formation in aqueous media. ...

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  • Comprehensive manual embracing essentially all the classical and modern areas of chemical kinetics. Provides details of modern applications in chemistry, technology and biochemistry. Special sections of the book treat subjects not covered sufficiently in other manuals, including: modern methods of experimental determination of rate constants of reactions including laser pico- and femtochemistry, magnetochemistry, and ESR; and descriptions of advanced theories of elementary chemical processes.

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  • It is traditional to begin books about polyurethanes by defining the class of polymers that has come to be known as polyurethanes. Unlike olefin-based polymers (poly- ethylene, polypropylene, etc.), the uniqueness of polyurethane is that it results not from a specific monomer (ethylene, propylene, etc.), but rather from a type of reaction, specifically the formation of a specific chemical bond. Inevitably, the discussion in traditional books then progresses to the component parts, the produc- tion processes, and ultimately the uses.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "World of Chemistry" presents the following contents: Chemistry - An introduction, matter, chemical foundations - Elements, atoms and ions, nomenclature, measurements and calculations, chemical composition, modern atomic theory, chemical bonding,...

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  • Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom, Many-Electron Atoms and Chemical Bonding, Molecular Orbitals, Spectroscopy, and Chemical Bonding,... as the main contents of the lesson lecture 9 "Tentative material to be covered for Exam 2". Invite you to consult the lesson for more documents serving the academic needs and research.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Beginning chemistry" presents the following contents: Basic concepts, atoms and atomic masses, electronic configuration of the atom, chemical bonding, inorganic nomenclature, formula calculations.

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  • Crystallization is one of the most ancient and interdisciplinary topics of research known to mankind. Crystals can be organic or inorganic and may be produced from melts, liquid solutions, vapors or even in solid state. Notwithstanding its inherently high complexity, the crystallization process is part of our everyday lives, from ice making in our homes to the most state-of-the-art chemical and electronic industry.

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  • Two of the main distinctions between chemical engineers and other engineering disciplines are the topics of mass and energy balances. Within these two topics there are a lot of underlying chemical principles that help chemical engineers to perform calculations to determine what is happening in a system, allowing better control of a process.

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  • Lecture Organic chemistry - Chapter 1: Bonding. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Bond strength and length, chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, equilibria, gibbs free energy, equilibria and free energy, reaction rate,...and other contents.

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  • We build a three-factor term-structure of interest rates model and use it to price corporate bonds. The first two factors allow the risk-free term structure to shift and tilt. The third factor generates a stochastic credit-risk premium. To implement the model, we apply the Peterson and Stapleton (2002) diffusion approximation methodology. The method approximates a correlated and lagged-dependent lognormal diffusion processes. We then price options on credit-sensitive bonds.

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  • Chemical reactions take place due to the redistribution of electron density among the reacting partners. Focusing on changes in electron density, which accompany the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, instead of the changes in the wave function accompanying them, allows us to use the ‘‘classical’’ three-dimensional language. Conceptual density functional theory (DFT) quantifies the possible responses of the system to various changes in density.

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  • Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholders in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds. In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the “New CREBs” program.

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  • Chapter 2 - Chemicals and the body. This chapter presents the following content: From atoms to molecules, water and living things, molecules of life, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.

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  • In IONIC BONDING the valence electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other atom. Ionic bonds occur between metals and nonmetals when there is a large difference in electronegativity. In COVALENT BONDING the valence electrons are shared as pairs between the bonded atoms. Pure covalent bonding only occurs when two nonmetal atoms of the same kind bind to each other. When two different nonmetal atoms are bonded or a nonmetal and a metal are bonded, then the bond is a mixture of covalent and ionic bonding called polar covalent bonding.

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  • The market for high yield or speculative-grade bonds1 has grown from $30 billion of outstanding bonds in 1980 to nearly $250 billion today. Over this period, the market has evolved from a collection of “fallen angels”—bonds that have lost their investment-grade rating—into an established capital market for raising funds. Although the high yield market is now mature, its behavior during business cycle downturns is not well understood.

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  • However, a major change in the relationship between the credit rating agencies and the U.S. bond markets occurred in the 1930s. Bank regulators were eager to encourage banks to invest only in safe bonds. They issued a set of regulations that culminated in a 1936 decree that prohibited banks from investing in “speculative investment securities” as determined by “recognized rating manuals.” “Speculative” securities (which nowadays would be called “ junk bonds”) were below “investment grade.

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  • The principal physiological role of mitochondrial cytochromecis electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylation. c-Type cytochromes are almost always characterized by covalent attachment of heme to protein through two thioether bonds between the heme vinyl groups and the thiols of cyste-ine residues in a Cys-Xxx-Xxx-Cys-His motif.

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  • Food biochemistry principles and knowledge have become indispensable in practically all the major disciplines of food science, such as food technology, food engineering, food biotechnology, food processing, and food safety within the past few decades. Knowledge in these areas has grown exponentially and keeps growing, and is disseminated through various media in both printed and electronic forms, and entire books are available for almost all the distinct specialty areas mentioned above. The two areas of food biochemistry and food processing are becoming closely interrelated....

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  • Polymers are materials of very high molecular weight that are found to have multifarious applications in our modern society. They usually consist of several structural units bound together by covalent bonds [1,2]. For example, polyethy- lene is a long-chain polymer and is represented by

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  • Molecules, small structures composed of atoms, are essential substances for lives. However, we didn’t have the clear answer to the following questions until the 1920s: why molecules can exist in stable as rigid networks between atoms, and why molecules can change into different types of molecules. The most important event for solving the puzzles is the discovery of the quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the theory for small particles such as electrons and nuclei, and was applied to hydrogen molecule by Heitler and London at 1927.

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