Chemical derivatives

Xem 1-20 trên 97 kết quả Chemical derivatives
  • Distillation is probably one of the oldest systematic processes in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering which goes back to the first century AD. The initial concepts were applied in the production of distilled water. Distillation was a single step batch process at the beginning. However, fractional distillation as is used today was developed more than 10 centuries later.

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  • Preparations derived from Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegl. mycelium are worldwide used as dietary supplements containing compounds active as immune system enhancers, demonstrating chemopreventive and anticancer activity. L. edodes mycelium enriched with organic forms of selenium like selenized yeast possess putative, higher cancer preventive properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water and alcohol extracts from mycelium of L. edodes (Berk.).

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  • Numerous proteins cannot be sufficiently prepared by ordinary recombi-nant DNA techniques because they are unstable or have deleterious effects on the host cell. One idea to prepare such proteins is to produce them as protein inclusions. Here we developed a novel system to effectively prepare proteins by using peptide tags derived from the insecticidal Cry toxin of a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis.

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  • Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has recently been identified as a modulator of neuronal plasticity and can initiate conversion of the pro-form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into its mature form. BDNF also increases t-PA gene expression implicating t-PA as a downstream effector of BDNF function.

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  • The leukocyte-derived arginine aminopeptidase (L-RAP) is the second ami-nopeptidase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) processing anti-genic peptides presented to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, the genomic organization of the gene encoding human L-RAP was determined and the regulatory mechanism of its expres-sion was elucidated.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well known oxidative stress inducer causing apoptosis of many cells. Previously, we have shown that heat shock pre-treatment blocked the release of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) to the cytosol and inhibited apoptosis of C2C12 myo-blast cells in response to H2O2.

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  • We previously developed the bio-nanocapsule, which consists of hepatitis B virus envelope L proteins. The bio-nanocapsule can be used to deliver genes and drugs specifically to the human liver-derived tissues in xenograft models, presumably by utilizing the human liver-specific mechanism of hepatitis B virus infection.

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  • In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the flavoprotein, NifL regulates NifA mediated transcriptional activation of the N2-fixation (nif) genes in response tomolecular O2and ammonium.We investigated the influence of membrane-bound oxidoreduc-tases on nif-regulation by biochemical analysis of purified NifLandbymonitoringNifA-mediated expressionofnifH¢-¢lacZ reporter fusions in different mutant backgrounds. NifL-bound FAD-cofactor was reduced by NADH only in the presence of a redox-mediator or inside-out vesicles derived from anaerobically grown K.pneumoniaecells,...

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  • In addition to kallikrein hK3, a serine protease generally reported as PSA (prostate-speci®c antigen), at least two other enzymes in human seminal plasma also cleave syn-thetic peptidyl substrates derived from the sequence of human semenogelins. We have identi®ed one of these as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), a major component of prostatic ¯uid whose physiological function is unclear.

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  • In our studies on the phytochemistry and biological activities of Croton tonkinensis Gagnep. (Euphorbiaceae) oriented by traditional medicine interesting biological activities of the plant were demonstrated in correlation with the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoid constituents. The high accumulation of the active principle ent-18-acetoxy-7-hydroxykaur-16-en-15-one (1) led to our recent study on the chemical modification of this lead compound. In this paper the transformations of 1 into several derivatives by hydrolysis, acetylation, and oxydation were reported.

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  • Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. Organic compounds are structurally diverse. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosives, and paints....

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  • IUPAC names: hydrocarbon + “oic acid”. Some natural occurring acids & derivatives. From Grignard reagents. From nitriles: Have 1 more carbon as compared to the halide.

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  • Common names: carboxylic acid - “aldehyde” is substituted for “ic acid”. Lower priority than ester - “oxo” group. Derived names: alkyls + ketone. IUPAC names: hydrocarbon + one.

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  • Permanganate may be applied to sites as either potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or sodium permanganate (NaMnO4). Where cost dominates over engineering factors at a site, potassium permanganate is the preferred chemical form because it is more widely available, less costly, and is available in solid form, which facilitates transport and handling. Where other factors are more important, the liquid form of sodium permangante is preferable.

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  • Chuck Schoeffler, Ph.D., authored portions of the v1.2 text in conjunction with Parallax, Inc. At that time, Dr Schoeffler was a professor at University of Idaho's Industrial Technology Education department. He designed the original Board of Education Robot (Boe-Bot) shown here along with many similar robot derivatives with unique functions. After several revisions, Chuck's design was adopted as the basis of the Parallax Boe-Bot that is used in this Text. Russ Miller of Parallax designed the Boe-Bot based on this prototype....

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  • Under the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative, which entered into force in 1995, the United States and its major trading partners eliminated tariffs on many pharmaceuticals, their derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used to make pharmaceuticals. The U.S. list of pharmaceutical products and chemical intermediates that are eligible for duty- free treatment under the agreement is presented in the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

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  • The hero in The Name of the Rose is a medieval English monk. He acts as sleuth, ‘‘Etymology’’ means the derivation of a word’s meaning. and is heard to note at one point in the story how, ‘The study of words is the whole of knowledge’. While we might wish he had gone a little further to mention chemicals, we would have to agree that many of our technical words can be traced back to Latin or Greek roots. The remainder of them originate from the principal scientists who pioneered a particular field of study, known as etymology....

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  • Chapter 3 INHALATION HAZARDS IN REFINERIES INTRODUCTION Operations of the petroleum industry can logically be divided into production, refining, and marketing. Production includes locating and drilling oil wells, pumping and pretreating the crude oil, recovering gas condensate, and shipping these raw products to the refinery or, in the case of gas, to commercial sales outlets. Refining, which extends to the conversion of crude to a finished salable product, includes oil refining and the manufacture of various chemicals derived from petroleum.

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  • Sewage sludge as an uncalled for product of wastewater treatment poses the challenge to society of disposing of it, but at the same time gives us the opportunity of beneficial use by closing the cycle of nutrients: sludge derived from agricultural activity must return to soil if a sustainable and ecologically sound management of these materials is desirable (SEQUI et al. 2000). At present the major ways of disposing of sewage sludges are deposition, landfill and incineration, only part of the sludges are used in agriculture. ...

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  • The list of pharmaceutical products in the Pharmaceutical Appendix (Appendix) to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) has grown substantially since 1995. As a result of the first update, 496 items were added to the Appendix. The second update introduced an additional 642 items. The third update added 1,298 items. The current update includes 381 drugs identified by their international nonproprietary names (INNs), 17 prefixes and suffixes to identify derivatives of the INNs, and 354 chemical intermediates.

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