Chemical Ecology

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  • Tham khảo sách 'chemical ecology: the chemistry of biotic interaction', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • In contrast to other animals, humans sense their world chiefly by vision, sound, and touch. We have, in general, a remarkably undeveloped sense of smell, and so it is not surprising that we fail to appreciate how important chemical signals are in the lives of other organisms. Chemical signals and cues serve insects in numerous ways, including sexual advertisement, social organization, defense, and finding and recognizing resources.

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  • As early as the middle of the 19th century, scientists were beginning to isolate and characterize organic compounds from nature. Modern studies of the nature of natural products, those compounds not involved in primary metabolic processes, began in the 1930s and 1940s. In the decades that followed, scientists began to focus on why organisms produce these compounds.

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  • The “origin of this species” lies in the pages of the journal Biometrika and precedes the birth of either of the authors. There, in his remarkable landmark 1951 paper “Random dispersal in theoretical populations,” J.G. Skellam made a number of observations that have profoundly affected the study of spatial ecology.

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  • Information gathered from the remaining intact tropical habitats might seem to deserve special treatment, for such data can be thought to represent precise, finely tuned biological interrelationships. Their evolutionary reason for existence might be revealed simply in their current ecology. Tropical data in general are often deemed more significant than comparable data taken in other habitats. Like the first-mentioned bias, this belief can encourage creative speculation, but sometimes it diminishes the accuracy with which the actual setting of a field study is examined or described....

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  • Drawing on the collective expertise of world authorities, Ecological Basis of Agroforestry employs extensive use of tables and figures to demonstrate how ecologically sustainable agroecosystems can meet the challenges of enhancing crop productivity, soil fertility, and environmental sustainability. Divided into four sections, this comprehensive volume begins with a study of tree-crop interaction in tropical and temperate climates.

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  • Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.

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  • When I was asked by Timber Press to write a new book on resins, including amber—Howes’s 1949 Vegetable Gums and Resins was the most recent such effort—the breadth of interdisciplinary coverage seemed too ambitious for an individual person. There have been so many advances in resin research in the past half century, including the development of new fields of research such as chemical ecology, and the exploration of other interesting facets about resins made possible by new chemical, molecular, and microscopic techniques.

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  • A sequel to the bestselling Ecological Risk Assessment, Ecological Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites focuses on how to perform ecological risk assessments for Superfund sites and locations contaminated by improper disposal of wastes, or chemical spills. It integrates the authors' extensive experience in assessing ecological risks at U.S. government sites with techniques and examples from assessments performed by others.

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  • This book is intended to be a presentation of alkaloids from chemical, biological and ecological points of view. It is a text for chemists, biologists and ecologists alike. However, the intended audience of this work is not limited to scientists, teachers and other present and future specialists. In fact, I wrote this book because I felt the need for it as a university educator and as a scientific enthusiast on the subject.

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  • Of the many books that have been written about weed management, most have focused on the use of herbicides. This volume is different. Instead of providing information about chemical weed control technologies, the emphasis here is on weed management procedures that rely on manipulations of ecological conditions and relationships. By focusing on ecologically based methods of management, we have been able to provide in-depth treatment of subjects that most weed science books treat only briefly.

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  • This book is about the distribution and abundance of different types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially the biological features and interactions that determine these distributions and abundances. Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But ecology is not an easy science.

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  • There are 4 million miles of roads in the United States. One hundred years ago, roads were primarily unpaved and had half the number of miles of the present U.S. road system. As the system grew, roads became wider and more complex structurally to provide for more and heavier traffic. New construction technology and greater structural stability were needed to improve the road system. All phases of road development—from construction and use by vehicles to maintenance—affect physical and chemical soil conditions, water flow, and air and water quality.

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  • Gerard Manley Hopkins was born in Stratford, East London in July 1844. Situated just beyond the metropolitan boundary, then, as now, the area was changing rapidly. With the arrival of the Great Eastern Railway’s locomotive works it was “cut up in all directions by branches of railways” (Olsen 1976: 275-6) but also suffered, as Norman White points out, as a consequence of London’s environmental diligence.

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  • The primary purpose of preparing this edition is to provide an update. In the 14 years since the first edition was published, ecological risk assessment has gone from being a marginal activity to being a relatively mature practice. There are now standard frameworks and guidance documents in the United States and several other countries. Ecological risk assessment is applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental management problems....

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  • Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the main pollinating agents for numerous plants and fruit trees and, hence, play a key role in agriculture and more generally in the maintenance of ecological biodiversity. Although these social insects are not the targets of all the different agrochemical treatments used in crop protection, they are widely affected by pesticides.

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  • The importance of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water sources has been highlighted by the adoption of a provisional drinking water “Guideline Value” for microcystin- LR, one of the most abundant toxins, by the World Health Organization (WHO). A number of nations have now legislated a guideline for microcystins into their drinking water regulations, with the consequent need for monitoring and analytical techniques. The Chemical Safety Committee of the WHO also has under consideration a Guideline Value for cylindrospermopsin, the other most damaging cyanobacterial toxin....

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  • Ngay từ giữa thế kỷ 19, các nhà khoa học đã bắt đầu để cô lập và mô tả đặc điểm các hợp chất hữu cơ từ thiên nhiên. Hiện đại nghiên cứu về bản chất của sản phẩm tự nhiên, những hợp chất không tham gia trong quá trình trao đổi chất chính, bắt đầu vào những năm 1930 và 1940. Trong những thập kỷ sau đó, các nhà khoa học đã bắt đầu tập trung vào lý do tại sao các sinh vật sản xuất các hợp chất này.

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  • Sự đa dạng của các chủ đề được đề cập trong tài liệu này là minh chứng cho thực tế là hệ sinh thái hóa học biển nhiều hơn so với động vật và các nhà máy sản xuất hóa chất ngăn chặn ăn thịt. Hóa chất có liên quan đến trung gian một mảng đa dạng của các tương tác liên intraspecific bao gồm cả cạnh tranh, ăn thịt, hỗ, và quá trình sinh sản, cũng như sự tương tác giữa sinh vật và vật lý của họ môi trường.

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  • Lục địa Nam Cực gợi lên hình ảnh của môi trường khắc nghiệt, chắc chắn nhà thám hiểm, động vật khác thường cuộc sống, và đặc biệt là cho các nhà khoa học, khám phá. Khoa học đã, trên thực tế, là động lực cho nhiều các nỗ lực để khám phá này khắc nghiệt nhất của châu lục.

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