Chemical energy

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  • Lecture Biology - Chapter 7: Pathways that harvest chemical energy. The topics discussed in this chapter are: How does glucose oxidation release chemical energy? What are the aerobic pathways of glucose metabolism? How is energy harvested from glucose in the absence of oxygen? How does the oxidation of glucose form ATP? Why does cellular respiration yield so much more energy than fermentation? How are metabolic pathways interrelated and controlled?

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  • Explosives and propellants contain considerable chemical energy that can be converted into rapid expansion. In contrast to the simple burning of a fuel, explosives and propellants are self-contained and do not need an external supply of oxygen via air. Since their energy content inherently creates the risk of accidental triggering of the explosive reaction, the correct synthesis, formulation, and handling during production and use are of utmost importance for safety, necessitating specialist knowledge on energetic materials, their characteristics, handling and applications.

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  • Chapter 9 - Cellular respiration: harvesting chemical energy. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain in general terms how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges; name the three stages of cellular respiration, for each, state the region of the eukaryotic cell where it occurs and the products that result; in general terms, explain the role of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration;...

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  • In this chapter, we will address the following questions: what is photosynthesis? How does photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy? How is chemical energy used to synthesize carbohydrates? How do plants adapt to the Inefficiencies of photosynthesis? How is photosynthesis connected to other metabolic pathways in plants?

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  • This book is concerned with the subject of Wind Energy, as a source of clean and renewable and free for all. The need for this type of book is very well documented, the current consumption of energy is unsustainable and humans have to change their habits and or utilise this source, but there is so much work before we can rely completely on renewable energy. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of wind energy and the pertinent parameters that control the amount of energy available from a given wind turbine. Coal fuelled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century.

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  • Electrical energy plays an important role in our daily life. It can universally be applied and easily be converted into light, heat or mechanical energy. A general problem, however, is that electrical energy can hardly be stored. Capacitors allow its direct storage, but the quantities are small, compared to the demand of most applications. In general, the storage of electrical energy requires its conversion into another form of energy.

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  • Mass transfer in the multiphase multicomponent systems represents one of the most important problems to be solved in chemical technology, both in theoretical as well as practical point of view. In libraries all over the world, many books and articles can be found related to the mass transfer. Practically, all textbooks devoted to the separation processes or reaction engineering contain chapters describing the basic principles of the mass (and heat) transfer.

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  • Steam - The Energy Fluid It is useful to introduce the topic of steam by considering its many uses and benefits, before entering an overview of the steam plant or any technical explanations. Steam has come a long way from its traditional associations with locomotives and the Industrial Revolution. Steam today is an integral and essential part of modern technology. Without it, our food, textile, chemical, medical, power, heating and transport industries could not exist or perform as they do.

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  • Chemical substances have become an essential part of human activities. Proper use of chemical substances help human society protect itself from hunger, thirst, famine, disease, and infection with good grains, fruits, and vegetables. Synthesis, formulations, and proper use of newer drugs and pharmaceuticals have offered the benefits of improved health care to society.

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  • Fuel cells (FCs) are electrochemical systems that continuously produce electric energy and heat, where the reactants (fuel and oxidant) are fed to the electrodes and the reaction products are removed from the cell. The chemical energy of the reactants is directly converted into electricity, reaction products, and heat without involving combustion processes. The efficiencies of the FCs are about twice those of the heat engines because the latter are affected by the limitations imposed by Carnot’s theorem.

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  • The Workshop on Energy and Transportation took place on January 7-9, 2002, in Washington, DC. This workshop was the second in a series of workshops that comprise the study Challenges in the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century. The purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of the current status of the chemical sciences, including chemistry and chemical engineering, and its interfaces with other disciplines such as mechanical engineering, physics, materials science, and the biological sciences.

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  • Two of the main distinctions between chemical engineers and other engineering disciplines are the topics of mass and energy balances. Within these two topics there are a lot of underlying chemical principles that help chemical engineers to perform calculations to determine what is happening in a system, allowing better control of a process.

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  • A thermodynamic decription of a process need a well - defined system. A thermodynamic system contain everything of thermodynamic interest for a particular chemical process within a boundary.. The buondary is either a real or hypothetical enclosure or sufaces that confines the system and separates it from it's surrounding

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  • This book is concerned with the subject of Wind Energy, as a source of clean and renewable and free for all. The need for this type of book is very well documented, the current consumption of energy is unsustainable and humans have to change their habits and or utilise this source, but there is so much work before we can rely completely on renewable energy. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of wind energy and the pertinent parameters that control the amount of energy available from a given wind turbine....

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  • THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism (see Chapters 7 and 8). Earlier discussions of the photochemical and biochemical reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural conditions, the photosynthetic process takes place in intact organisms that are continuously responding to internal and external changes. This chapter addresses some of the photosynthetic responses of the intact leaf to its environment....

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  • MOST OF US are familiar with the observation that house plants placed near a window have branches that grow toward the incoming light. This response, called phototropism, is an example of how plants alter their growth patterns in response to the direction of incident radiation. This response to light is intrinsically different from light trapping by photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, plants harness light and convert it into chemical energy (see Chapters 7 and 8). In contrast, phototropism is an example of the use of light as an environmental signal.

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  • For millennia, advances in human progress have been tied to our ability to protect ourselves from the harmful effects of the wastes we produce—ranging from human waste to the organic and inorganic by-products of everyday living. Across the world, cultures learned to bury their dead away from their homes and to burn their waste or make certain that it was carried away by streams and rivers flowing downstream from their homes. Those cultures that learned this most effectively thrived. When the industrial revolution took place in the nineteenth century, rivers again enabled progress.

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  • Analysis of streambed sediments in the Salem, Oregon, area showed anomalously large concentrations of some elements and organic chemicals, indicating contamination from anthropogenic and/or geologic sources. The streambed sediment sample from Clark Creek, an urban basin, had large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hyrdocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines, cadmium, lead, and zinc. The sample from the East Fork of Pringle Creek, which is a mostly urban basin, had the highest concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDT compounds.

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  • In many ways, local authorities are well placed to pursue measures which improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For example, policies designed to reduce the impact that transport has on air quality by tackling congestion and encouraging a shift to public transport, walking and cycling should also reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Measures to improve energy efficiency and cut energy demand should also reduce air pollutants that are produced during electricity generation.

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  • Improvements in ethanol’s energy consumption have continued since large- scale commercial production began in the 1970s. The process has become more efficient at using the starch in the corn kernel, approaching the theo- retical limit of about 2.85 gallons of ethanol per bushel. Energy for conver- sion has fallen from as high as 70,000 Btu’s per gallon in the late 1970s (Wang, August 1999) to 40,000 Btu’s or less for modern dry mills and to 40,000-50,000 Btu’s for wet mills. Modern energy-saving technology and process optimization account for the improvement....

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