Worldwide, crude oil demand is unceasingly increasing. As a response, Enhanced Oil
Recovery (EOR) processes have re‐gained interest from the research and development
phases to the oilfield EOR implementation stage. This renewed interest has been also
furthered by the current high oil price environment, the maturation of oilfields
worldwide, and few new‐well discoveries. Concurrently, environmental concerns and
public pressure related to crude oil pollution control and remediation of oilcontaminated
sites are becoming greater than ever....
Preparations derived from Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegl. mycelium are worldwide used as dietary supplements
containing compounds active as immune system enhancers, demonstrating chemopreventive and
anticancer activity. L. edodes mycelium enriched with organic forms of selenium like selenized yeast possess
putative, higher cancer preventive properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of
enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water and alcohol
extracts from mycelium of L. edodes (Berk.).
The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is probably the most significant
legislative instrument in the water field that was introduced on an international basis
for many years. It moves towards integrated environmental management with key
objectives to prevent any further deterioration of water bodies, and protect and enhance
the status of aquatic ecosystems and associated wetlands. It aims to promote sustainable
water consumption and will contribute to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.
Enhancer of rudimentary (ER) is a small protein that has a unique amino
acid sequence and structure. Its highly conserved gene has been found in
all eukaryotic kingdoms with the exception of fungi. ER was proposed to
be involved in the metabolism of pyrimidines and was reported to act as a
transcriptional repressor in a cell type-specific manner.
The eﬀect of a-tocopheryl hemisuccinate (TS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-c (IFN)-induced nitric oxide production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was examined. The LPS/IFN-induced NO production was enhanced by TS but not by the other a-tocopherol (a-T) derivatives a-tocopheryl acetate (TA) and a-tocopheryl nicotinate (TN), or a-T itself. a-T, TA and TN inhibited the enhancement by TS of LPS/IFNinduced NO production.
accharomyces cerevisiaeis a widely used host in the pro-ductionof therapeutic peptides andproteins.Herewe report
the identification of a novel endoprotease in S. cerevisiae.
It is encoded by the CYM1gene and is specific for the
C-terminus of basic residues of heterologously expressed
peptides. Gene disruption ofCYM1not only reduced the
intracellular proteolysis, but also enhanced the secretion of
heterologously expressed peptides such as growth hormone,
pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and pro-cholecystokinin....
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), unlike conventional magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), provides information on the brain’s chemical environment (rather than
neuroanatomical structure) and the data are most commonly presented as line spectra.
This capacity for determining brain metabolite concentrations provides the basis for
clinical investigation of, and differentiation between, neurological and neurosurgical
When the field of microfluidics emerged in the early 1990s, it was primarily focused
on the development of analytical microdevices. Since then, microfluidics has expanded
its influence into virtually every branch of science and engineering. There are many
driving forces behind this explosive growth. To name a few:
• Scaling properties afforded by miniaturization are desirable for many
applications. For example, enhanced mass transfer and heat dissipation
enable faster chemical separations without sacrificing separation
Since all of these flavors are present in beer, it is important that beer judges completely coat the inside
of their mouths with beer when evaluating it and that the beer be swallowed. As is true for the scent
receptors in the nose, different people have different densities of taste buds and, thus, have different
sensitivities to various flavors. Also, taste buds can be damaged (e.g., being burnt by hot food or
through exposure to irritants like spicy foods, smoking, or other chemicals), so a judge’s sensitivity may
be diminished until tastebuds can regenerate (about 10 days).
With regard to the ‘cause’ of this phenomenon, several explanations have been offered,
including improvement in chemical restraints available for large animals, the elimination of
gender-based admission discrimination and the generally caring portrayal of veterinarians
in both the literature and on television (Lofstedt, 2003:534).
It is difficult to overemphasize the importance of magnetic resonance techniques in
chemistry. Experimental spectra can usually be successfully interpreted empirically,
but more difficult cases require a prediction based on the electronic structure. In the
last 25 years the calculation of magnetic resonance parameters from first principles
has become a powerful research tool that can significantly enhance the utility of
magnetic resonance techniques when empirical interpretations are insufficient.
Although much of its discovery process is descriptive and qualitative, chemistry is fundamentally a
quantitative science. It serves a wide range of human needs, activities, and concerns. The mathematical sciences
provide the language for quantitative science, and this language is growing in many directions as computational
science in general continues its rapid expansion. A timely opportunity now exists to strengthen and increase the
beneficial impacts of chemistry by enhancing the interaction between chemistry and the mathematical sciences.
The objective of waste water treatment is to prevent large quantities of substances to reach
and impact the environment in high doses and concentrations.
Areas of high population densitiy naturally are areas were production of sewage sludge is
high (see Figure 1-1). Presently about 8 million t of sewage sludges (MAGOAROU 2000) are
produced each year in the EU member states (Table 1-1). Its high content of organic
materials, of nitrogen and phosphorous suggest their use as soil conditioner and fertilizer
Paradoxically, skin is both a primary barrier to systemic absorption of topically
exposed chemicals and a portal to systemic delivery of transdermal medicaments.
Knowledge of the factors that determine both extent and rate of chemical flux across
the skin is an important component of both toxicology and pharmacology studies.
The aim of this book is to provide current approaches and techniques by which
dermal absorption may be quantitated utilizing end points relative to these two
Following site characterization, working hypotheses
about important mechanisms that control the
behavior of injected CO2 are developed and tested.
This approach has been studied extensively over
the last decade from a risk assessment perspective
(Savage et al., 2004; Lewicki et al., 2006). The
mechanisms that have controlled past behavior,
and will control future behavior, need to be
understood through fluid flow simulation based
on an understanding of the fluid and chemical
processes active at the pore level and guided by
available injection/production and monitoring
The history, culture and community values of East Africans are embedded in agriculture. It is the most
important source of livelihoods for millions of East Africans. The sustainable management of the
agriculture production process is therefore crucial if livelihoods are to be sustained.
Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system, which promotes and enhances agro-
ecosystem health, including bio-diversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity.
Addressing diet and physical activity in the workplace has the potential
to improve the health status of workers; contribute to a positive and
caring image of the company; improve staff morale; reduce staff
turnover and absenteeism; enhance productivity; and reduce sick leave,
health plan costs and workers' compensation and disability payments.
Petroleum contaminant decomposition and in-situ destruction may be
accomplished using chemical oxidation technologies. In contrast to other remedial
technologies, contaminant reduction can be seen in short time frames (e.g., weeks
or months). As discussed in this chapter, a variety of chemical oxidants and
application techniques can be used to bring oxidizing materials into contact with
subsurface contaminants to remediate the contamination.
The movement of vehicles on the street also results in resuspension of road dust. Emissions also occur as
a result of tyre wear and brake lining wear. Although there is a lack of data, it is expected that most of
these particles will be in the size range 3 to some 30µm. The chemical composition of these particles may
also be very different from those derived from combustion.
The road dust deposit available for resuspension comes from mechanical wear of, and dirt on, vehicles
(incl. tyre and brake lining wear), debris from loads on vehicles, influx of soil material etc.
The ecosystem of the lake is under threat due to the rise in human population density
leading to intensive irrigation, farming, land subdivision, and intensive use of agro-
chemicals and deforestation around the lake. The growth of the township has also led
to more runoff, siltation and nutrients being discharged into the lake via inflowing
rivers and drainage channels along roads and the other infrastructure. Inadequately
treated effluents from the ton's sewage treatment plan are also finding their way into