Chemical exposures

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  • Risk assessment of chemical substances is an ever-developing discipline. Transparent and accurate risk assessments are necessary for decision-makers to make wise risk management decisions. The outcome of risk assessments may have enormous economical consequences, in addition to the consequences for human health and the environment. Globalization is a fact, with huge possibilities for economic and social prosperity. Food and consumer products are produced in one part of the world and put on the market in another....

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  • This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable. For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided. Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for quick evaluations of detailed work....

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  • The 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War was brief and entailed few US casualties in comparison with other wars, and yet it had a profound impact on the lives of many of the troops. Among the 700,000 US military personnel deployed in the battle theater, many veterans have reported chronic symptoms and illnesses that they have attributed to their service in the gulf. Numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the long-term adverse health consequences of deployment to the Persian Gulf. Potential exposures to numerous hazardous substances have been identified in association with the Gulf War.

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  • The first edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1989) was written to bridge the gap between toxicology and chemistry. It defined toxicological chemistry as the science that deals with the chemical nature and reactions of toxic substances, their origins and uses, and the chemical aspects of their exposure, transformation, and elimination by biological systems. It emphasized the chemical formulas, structures, and reactions of toxic substances. The second edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1992) was significantly enlarged and increased in scope compared to the first edition.

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  • This book provides a comprehensive compilation of chapters in air quality modelling, monitoring, exposure, health and control. The book consists of two volumes. Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling and Health mainly consist of chapters describing pioneering research findings in air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure and health; Air Pollution – Monitoring, Modelling, Health and Control comprises research findings on air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control.

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  • It is hard to imagine that less than fifteen years ago building and fire codes specific to the construction of a wafer fabrication facility were just in the process of being developed. Detection and evaluation of leaking underground storage tanks and epidemiological health studies aimed at qualifying and quantifying our “cleanroom” image were in their infancy stages and Cal- OSHA had just completed the first in-depth study of the industry’s chemical processes and associated industrial hygiene exposures....

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  • Social determinants of health have a strong influence on a wide diversity of health endpoints. The same is valid for the field of environmental health, as the exposure to environmental risk factors is also unequally distributed, and this unequal distribution is often related to social characteristics such as income, social status, employment and education, but also non-economic aspects such as gender, age or ethnicity. However, depending on the environmental risk and the “risk group” considered, the magnitude of inequality varies largely.

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  • In addition to ventilation, indoor temperature and humidity conditions, which can change both diurnally and seasonally, have the potential to substantially affect the emissions of VOCs from building materials and alter occupant exposure. In large-scale chamber experiments with new carpet systems, sheet vinyl flooring and wall paint, the air temperature was increased from 23 o C to about 30 o C over a period of 60 h (Hodgson, 1999).

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  • This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals. Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals. Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to human beings.

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  • Since the synthesis of DDT during 1874 several insecticide molecules have been identified and synthesized globally for the control of insect pests, pathogens, microbes, vectors of human and animal diseases, weeds and other obnoxious organisms. Currently, 1.8 billion kgs of pesticides are used annually worldwide in the form of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. There are more than 1055 active ingredients registered as pesticides till date implying that there is no best alternate for the chemical pesticide.

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  • The previous WHO guidelines were established for 15 minutes to protect against short-term peak exposures that might occur from, for example, an un- vented stove; for 1 hour to protect against excess exposure from, for example, faulty appliances; and for 8 hours (which is relevant to occupational exposures and has been used as an averaging time for ambient exposures). We do not rec- ommend changing the existing guidelines. However, chronic carbon monoxide exposure appears different from acute exposure in several important respects.

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  • Theo định nghĩa của OECD Để liệt kê trong Phụ lục IPCS = 1 (OECD 2003a): Tiếp xúc is''Evaluation Đánh giá của sự tiếp xúc của một hệ thống, sinh vật hoặc dân số (phụ) để đại lý năm (và các dẫn xuất của nó)''phơi đánh giá là. thứ ba bước trong quá trình đánh giá rủi ro.

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  • The purpose of this document is to provide hospitals and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals Organization (JCAHO) a guide prepared by medical physicists recommending tests and proce- dures for medical lasers to maintain a high level of quality care in a safe environment. The guidance for safe use of laser systems for diagnosis and therapy is intended for use by all health care personnel associated with laser systems’ operation (physicians, nurses, medical physicists), maintenance (engineers), and service (biomedical technicians).

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  • This report has been prepared as a result of a request to the National Council on Radiation Protedion and Measurements (NCRP) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In recent years, nuclear utilities have identified the potential for a limited number of employees to come in contact with microscopic particles that are radioactive. These particles have been given the generic name, independent of their source and particular chemical and radioactive content, of "hot particles."

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  • FFDCA governs the establishment of tolerances, requiring that these levels are sufficient to ensure a ―reasonable certainty of no harm‖ from pesticide use. FFDCA contains specific requirements related to children as a result of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) amendments of 1996.

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  • Natural groundwater quality changes start in the soil, where infiltrating rainfall dissolves carbon dioxide from biological activity in the soil to produce weak carbonic acid that may assist removal of soluble minerals from the underlying rocks, e.g. calcite cements. At the same time, soil organisms consume some of the oxygen that was dissolved in the rainfall. In temperate and humid climates with significant recharge, groundwater moves relatively quickly through the aquifer.

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  • The toxicity or carcinogenicity of each reagent used in this method has not been precisely defined; however, each chemical compound should be treated as a potential health hazard. From this viewpoint, exposure to these chemicals must be reduced to the lowest possible level by whatever means available. The laboratory is responsible for maintaining a current awareness file of OSHA regulations regarding the safe handling of the chemicals specified in this method.

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  • It was noted before that several synthetic copper chemicals are used in organic agriculture as fungicides. Although small amounts of copper are essential for life, it is a toxic element at higher levels. There have been reports of people committing suicide by ingesting it. Vineyard sprayers have experienced liver disease from exposure to it. It is corrosive to the skin and eyes and is absorbed through the skin. It causes reproductive problems in birds, hamsters and rats. It has been shown to induce heart disease in the offspring of pregnant hamsters that were exposed to it.

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  • Two samples were also analysed for polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), a class of chemical that can be formed during the combustion of materials present in e-waste. Soil from an open burning site was moderately contaminated, while sediment from the Agbogbloshie lagoon contained a very high level of these highly toxic, highly persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals, at a level just below the threshold defined as being indicative of serious contamination for sediments in the Netherlands.

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  • A new class of rugged fiber optic connectors has been introduced to speed residential connection in Fiber-To-The-Premises (FTTP) cabling networks. The connectors are strategically located in the distribution network to facilitate service connection, maintenance and reconfiguration of subscriber services. Connectors are typically staged at the street outside a residence to facilitate easy access and connection to the residence at a later date.

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