Chemical plants

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  • Industrial Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary topic to which tools of modern biotechnology are applied for finding proper proportion of raw mix of chemicals, determination of set points, finding the flow rates etc., This study is significant as it results in better economy, quality product and control of pollution. The authors in this book have given only methods of industrial biotechnology mainly to help researchers, students and chemical engineers. Since biotechnology concerns practical and diverse applications including production of new drugs, clearing up pollution etc.

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  • A plant nutrient is a chemical element that is essential for plant growth and reproduction. Essential element is a term often used to identify a plant nutrient. The term nutrient implies essentiality, so it is redundant to call these elements essential nutrients. Commonly, for an element to be a nutrient, it must fit certain criteria. The principal criterion is that the element must be required for a plant to complete its life cycle. The second criterion is that no other element substitutes fully for the element being considered as a nutrient.

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  • In contrast to other animals, humans sense their world chiefly by vision, sound, and touch. We have, in general, a remarkably undeveloped sense of smell, and so it is not surprising that we fail to appreciate how important chemical signals are in the lives of other organisms. Chemical signals and cues serve insects in numerous ways, including sexual advertisement, social organization, defense, and finding and recognizing resources.

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  • A fungicide is a chemical pesticide compound that kills or inhibits the growth of fungi. In agriculture, fungicide is used to control fungi that threaten to destroy or compromise crops. Fungicides for Plant and Animal Diseases is a book that has been written to present the most significant advances in disciplines related to fungicides.

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  • Permanganate may be applied to sites as either potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or sodium permanganate (NaMnO4). Where cost dominates over engineering factors at a site, potassium permanganate is the preferred chemical form because it is more widely available, less costly, and is available in solid form, which facilitates transport and handling. Where other factors are more important, the liquid form of sodium permangante is preferable.

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  • When I was asked by Timber Press to write a new book on resins, including amber—Howes’s 1949 Vegetable Gums and Resins was the most recent such effort—the breadth of interdisciplinary coverage seemed too ambitious for an individual person. There have been so many advances in resin research in the past half century, including the development of new fields of research such as chemical ecology, and the exploration of other interesting facets about resins made possible by new chemical, molecular, and microscopic techniques.

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  • To meet the growing demand for safe vegetables, the assessment of understanding and awareness of risk producers of plant protection drugs increasingly are concerned, so that, with appropriate measures of hazards and reduce harmful levels of chemicals in the product. Therefore, this study was to assess the awareness of local people about the risks of plant protection drugs

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  • Under the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative, which entered into force in 1995, the United States and its major trading partners eliminated tariffs on many pharmaceuticals, their derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used to make pharmaceuticals. The U.S. list of pharmaceutical products and chemical intermediates that are eligible for duty- free treatment under the agreement is presented in the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.

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  • (BQ) Ebook Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism is designed for use by advanced students, researchers and profes-sionals in plant biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, agricul-ture and pharmacy working in the academic and industrial sectors, including the pesticide and pharmaceutical industries.

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  • Difficulty in addressing contamination in low permeability soils may be alleviated to some degree by controlled pneumatic or hydraulic fracturing of the soil. However, engineered hydraulic fractures generally cannot be spaced more closely than about 5 feet, which means that chemical oxidants must still penetrate a substantial thickness of low permeability soil to come into contact with the contamination. Deep soil mixing with large diameter drill augers is the most effective method currently available to increase contact between adsorbed contaminants and the oxidants.

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  • IN CHAPTER 5 WE DISCUSSED plants’ requirements for mineral nutrients and light in order to grow and complete their life cycle. Because living organisms interact with one another and their environment, mineral nutrients cycle through the biosphere. These cycles involve complex interactions, and each cycle is critical in its own right. Because the amount of matter in the biosphere remains constant, energy must be supplied to keep the cycles operational. Otherwise increasing entropy dictates that the flow of matter would ultimately stop.

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  • Hydrogen peroxide is particularly effective when it reacts with ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) to produce Fenton's Reagent. Ferrous iron may be naturally present in the subsurface soils and/or groundwater, or it can be added as a catalyst solution together with the hydrogen peroxide to produce this aggressive chemical reaction. Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) reacts to form hydroxyl radicals (OH•), ferric iron (Fe3+ ), and hydroxyl ions (OH- ). The hydroxyl ions are very powerful oxidizers, and react particularly with organic compounds.

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  • PLANT CELLS, UNLIKE ANIMAL CELLS, are surrounded by a relatively thin but mechanically strong cell wall. This wall consists of a complex mixture of polysaccharides and other polymers that are secreted by the cell and are assembled into an organized network linked together by both covalent and noncovalent bonds. Plant cell walls also contain structural proteins, enzymes, phenolic polymers, and other materials that modify the wall’s physical and chemical characteristics.

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  • THE FORM AND FUNCTION of multicellular organism would not be possible without efficient communication among cells, tissues, and organs. In higher plants, regulation and coordination of metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis often depend on chemical signals from one part of the plant to another. This idea originated in the nineteenth century with the German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897). Sachs proposed that chemical messengers are responsible for the formation and growth of different plant organs.

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  • THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism (see Chapters 7 and 8). Earlier discussions of the photochemical and biochemical reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural conditions, the photosynthetic process takes place in intact organisms that are continuously responding to internal and external changes. This chapter addresses some of the photosynthetic responses of the intact leaf to its environment....

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  • During the Uruguay Round trade negotiations, the United States and several of its major trading partners agreed to eliminate tariffs on pharmaceutical products, certain derivatives, and certain chemical intermediates used in the production of pharmaceuticals. 1 This agreement is known as the Pharmaceutical Zero-for-Zero Initiative (Initiative or Pharmaceutical Agreement).

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  • This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals. Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals. Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to human beings.

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  • Hexabromobenzene (HBB) has been used as a flame retardant in polymers, plastics, textiles, wood and paper. Its primary uses have been reported in the plastics, paper and electrical industries (Bruchajzer et al., 2004). U.S. production/import volume was listed as 10,000- 500,000 pounds for 1998, but no information is available beyond that time (U.S. EPA, 2002). In addition to its use as a flame retardant, HBB is a thermal decomposition product of octa- and decaBDEs and hexabromobiphenyl (as cited in Bruchajzer et al., 2004).

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  • Chemical composition of essential oil of Machilus Japonica Siebold & Zucc. (Lauraceae) from Vietnam were studied. The essential oil were obtained from the leaves of young plants (3-4 years) by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS. The main components in this species identified were α-phellandrene (60.2%), βphellandrene (10.5%), p-cymene (20.3%),

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  • The Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognises that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and challenges. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the producers and local economy while the potential challenges are the flow-on costs to the environment, animal health and welfare.

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