Xem 1-20 trên 24 kết quả Chemical poisoning
  • Introduction: Toluene, benzene, xylene and styrene are being widely used for chemical product materials, solvents and constituents of adhesives and paints, and thus sometimes cause poisoning incidents by inhaling their gas at chemical product-manufacturing factories. The abuse of thinner solvents, containing toluene, benzene and xylene, is now a social problem especially for young people. There are many crimes and poisoning incidents involving the thinner solvent abuse.

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  • Introduction: The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are being listed to be controlled.

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  • Introduction: Chloroform exerts a suppressing effect on the central nervous system. It had been used as a general anaesthetic since the 19th century, but it disappeared, because of its hepatotoxicity and arrhythmia-inducing effects. It is now being used for industrial purposes, such as a solvent, extracting reagent, refrigerant and chemical material. Chloroform poisoning can be seen in accidental, suicidal [1] and homicidal cases.

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  • Introduction: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly; 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically modified from ergot alkaloid produced by a bacterium Claviceps purpurea.

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  • Introduction: Among many carbamate pesticides commercially available in Japan, those with relatively high toxicities are shown in Table 4.1 [1]. Carbamate pesticides are generally classified into N-methylcarbamate insecticides and N-allylcarbamate herbicides in view of their chemical structures and biological actions. The number of fatalities due to poisoning by carbamate pesticides is 50–100 every year in Japan; many of them are poisoned by methomyl [2].

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  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons, by Fredrick Accum This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.

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  • Introduction: As many as 5,000–6,000 mushroom species are growing in the world. Among them, only about 1,000 species are named; the majority of them are unnamed. The number of species of edible mushrooms in Japan is about 300; that of toxic mushrooms is said to be about 30. Various types of toxic mushrooms exist; some show high toxicity, while others show hallucinogenic actions. Morphological and chemical analyses for mushrooms are occasionally required in forensic science practice.

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  • Introduction: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is volatile (boiling point: 25.7°C) and weakly acidic (pKa: 9.2). It is bound with cytochrome oxidase to inhibit its activity and induce cellular anoxia; it shows an immediate toxic effects. The fatal dose of HCN is about 100 mg. Cyanide has been being involved in various incidents of suicides, homicides and accidents. It is relatively easy to obtain cyanide, because it is being widely used in metallurgy, metal-plating and other chemical industries. It is a typical poison to be analyzed with high priority.

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  • 5.3 II.5.3 Hair dyes by Kazuhiro Koyama and Takaaki Kikuno Introduction Nowadays, numerous kinds of hair dyes are being commercially available. Hair dyes are classified into “reactive hair dyes” with high toxicity and into “adhering hair dyes” with lower toxicity. The reactive hair dyes form a polymerized dye by oxidative reactions inside hair, while the adhering hair dyes only adhere to the outer surface of hair without chemical reaction. In view of poisoning, the reactive hair dyes are objects of interest and of analysis.

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  • Introduction: An organophosphorus nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate, Figure 2.1) shows potent inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase; its development, production, stockpiling and use are being prohibited by the CWC international treaty as a chemical weapon together with those of sarin and soman. In addition, even material compounds for VX synthesis are being also controlled strictly. In the world history, there had been no records on the use of VX in any international dispute.

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  • Introduction: Chemical weapons (chemical warfare agents), such as sarin and soman, were developed to kill or injure humans by their toxic actions. They are called “nuclear weapon of the poor”, because the weapons are relatively stable during storage, cheap for production and relatively easily synthesized with basic knowledge on organic chemistry. Main advanced countries are making efforts to reduce chemical weapons existing in the world on the basis of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), after the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War.

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  • Introduction: Phenothiazine drugs, including chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, have been being widely used as neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), antiparkinsonian drugs and antihistaminics for a long time [1]. Table 1.1 shows chemical structures of representative phenothiazines. These drugs show blocking action on D2 receptors of dopaminergic neurons; there is close relationship between the receptor blocking and tranquilizing actions. The dopamine D2 receptor-blocking actions provoke extrapyramidal symptoms, such as muscular stiffness, tremor and ptyalism.

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  • Introduction: Pyrethroids are the general term for insecticide pyrethrins and their analogs (cinerins and jasmolins) being included in the flowers of pyrethrum or chrysanthemum. Trace concentrations of pyrethroids exert rapid toxic effects on insects, but are rapidly metabolized for detoxification in warm-blooded animals; they are insecticides with very high safety for humans. On the basis of clarification of chemical structures of the effective components of the pyrethrum, many of new synthetic pyrethroids were developed.

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  • Introduction: Agricultual chemicals include not only pesticides for protecting plants, such as insecticides, germicides, herbicides and rodenticides, but also fertilizers and growth regulating substances being used in agricultural production and horticulture. In poisoning cases with agricultural chemicals, the causative poisons are largely the pesticides. There are many cases, in which the poisoning due to exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide is obvious with clinical symptoms [1].

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  • Introduction: In addition to the well known Tokyo Sarin Incident in 1995, the arsenic-adulteration incident in Wakayama and the cyanide-adulteration incident in Nagano both in 1998 seem to have triggered several ten poisoning cases, which took place in 1998–1999. An explosion incident of a chemical factory, a turnover incident of a chemical tank truck and a poisoning murder incident for insurance have also occurred recently. Such poisoning-related incidents are becoming more serious social problems also in Japan.

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  • The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine (GEAM) is a one-stop source for alternative medical information that covers complementary therapies, herbs and remedies, and common medical diseases and conditions. It avoids medical jargon when possible, making it easier for the layperson to use. The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine presents authoritative, balanced information and is more comprehensive than single-volume family medical guides.

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  • A sequel to the bestselling Ecological Risk Assessment, Ecological Risk Assessment for Contaminated Sites focuses on how to perform ecological risk assessments for Superfund sites and locations contaminated by improper disposal of wastes, or chemical spills. It integrates the authors' extensive experience in assessing ecological risks at U.S. government sites with techniques and examples from assessments performed by others.

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  • Chemicals are able to bring about both desirable and undesirable effects on organisms to which they are exposed, and the actions of medicines and poisons and toxic agents have been recognized for thousands of years. As a result of industrialization, modern man and the environment is now exposed to increasing numbers of chemicals. Because of their potential hazard, there is an appreciation of the requirement to assess the effects of these chemicals. Since chemical structure was elucidated (for a very brief history see Table 1.

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  • The University of Chicago Science Series, established by the Trustees of the University, owes its origin to a feeling that there should be a medium of publication occupying a position between the technical journals with their short articles and the elaborate treatises which attempt to cover several or all aspects of a wide field.

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  • Pollution is one of the greatest problems facing mankind. The nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the poisoning of the river Rhine by chemicals are just two recent examples of disasters affecting the environment. What can be done? Some people say there is no practical sollution. However, I believe the problem can be dealt with on three levels: internationally, nationally, and last but not least, on a personal level.

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