Chemical reaction

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  • The fourth edition of Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering is a completely revised version of the worldwide best-selling book. It combines authoritative coverage of the principles of chemical reaction engineering with an unsurpassed focus on critical thinking and creative problem solving, employing open-ended questions and stressing the Socratic method. Clear and superbly organized, it integrates text, visuals, and computer simulations to help readers solve even the most challenging problems through reasoning, rather than by memorizing equations.

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  • Chemical reaction engineering (reaction engineering or reactor engineering) is a specialty in chemical engineering or industrial chemistry dealing with chemical reactors. Frequently the term relates specifically to catalytic reaction systems where either a homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst is present in the reactor.

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  • Chemical reaction engineering is concerned with the exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. It's goal is the successful design and operation of chemical reactors. This text emphasizes qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. Simple ideas are treated first, and are then extended to the more complex.

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  • This book is an introduction to the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. The level of the presentation is what we consider appropriate for a one-semester course. The text provides a balanced approach to the understanding of: (1) both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and (2) both chemical reaction engineering and chemical reactor engineering. We have emulated the teachings of Prof. Michel Boudart in numerous sections of this text.

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  • Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state (solid, liquid, gas, dissolved). Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate. Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.

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  • Ebook The language of Chemistry, Food and Biological Technology in English (ngôn ngữ tiếng anh chuyên ngành công nghệ hóa học, công nghệ thực phẩm và công nghệ sinh học) - GS.TS. Nguyễn Thị Hiền (chủ biên) có cấu trúc gồm 4 part.

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  • A photopolymer is a polymer that changes its properties when exposed to light, often in the ultraviolet frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum.Be bonds that link one polymer chain to another. Can be formed by chemical reactions that are initiated by radiation. Change physical properties of photopolymers.

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  • To elucidate the chemical interactions underlying the role of metallothioneins (MTs) in reducing the cytotoxicity caused by MeHg(II), we monitored in parallel by electronic absorption and CDspectroscopies the stepwise addition of MeHgCl stock solution to mammalian Zn7-MT1 and the isolated Zn4 -aMT1 and Zn3 -bMT1 fragments. The incor-poration of MeHg + into Zn7-MT and Zn3-bMT entails total displacement of Zn(II) and unfolding of the protein. However, both features are only partial for Zn4 -aMT.

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  • Glyoxal is a key compound involved in glyoxal oxidase (GLOX)-dependent production of glyoxylate, oxalate and H2O2 by lignin-degrading basidiomycetes. In this paper, we report that glyoxal was produced from a metabolite of ligninolytic fungi, linoleic acid, by manganese peroxidase (MnP)-dependent lipid peroxidation. In the absence of the parent substrate of linoleic acid, the dialdehyde was oxidized by MnP and Mn(III) chelate to start free radical reactions with emission of chemiluminescence at 700– 710 nm. ...

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  • We seek to design reaction vessels, i.e. chemical reactors, where a particular chemical reaction (or set of reactions) is carried out. The first decision we take involves the configuration of the reactor and its mode of operation. This means we must decide what reactor type (and reactor shape) to select and whether it would be advantageous to operate in batch or continuous mode.

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  • Reactions and transformations of chemicals. Many chemicals undergo reaction or transformation in the subsurface environment. In contrast to retardation contaminants may be removed, rather than simply slowed down. Reactions of harmful chemicals to yield benign products prior to arrival at a receptor are the ideal, e.g. many toxic hydrocarbons have potential to biodegrade to simple organic acids (of low health concern and themselves potentially degradable), carbon dioxide (bicarbonate) and water. Transformation often causes a deactivation (lowering) of toxicity.

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  • The high specificity ofa-conotoxins for different neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors makes them important probes for dissecting receptor subtype selectivity. New sequences continue to expand the diversity and utility of the pool of available a-conotoxins. Their identification andcharacterizationdependonasuiteoftechniques with increasing emphasis on mass spectrometry and micro-scale chromatography, which have benefited from recent advances in resolution and capability.

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  • Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) reduces dehydro-ascorbate (DHA) to ascorbate with glutathione (GSH) as the electron donor. We analyzed the reactionmechanismof spinach chloroplast DHAR, which had a much higher reaction specificity for DHA than animal enzymes, using a recombinant enzyme expressed inEscherichia coli. Kinetic analysis suggested that the reaction proceeded by a bi-uni-uni-uni-ping-pong mechanism, in which binding of DHA to the free, reduced formof the enzyme was followed bybindingofGSH....

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  • Chapter 4 - The Study of chemical reactions. In this chapter, students will be able to: Propose mechanisms and explain the steps for simple reactions such as free-radical halogenation; draw a reaction-energy diagram, and use it to identify the factors controlling the thermodynamics and kinetics of a reaction; use the mechanism, thermodynamics, and kinetics of a reaction to predict which of several possible products is the major product; identify reactive intermediates and explain their properties.

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  • In order to identify an enzyme capable of Fenton reaction inSynechocystis, we purified an enzyme catalyzing one-electron reduction oft-butyl hydro-peroxide in the presence of FAD and Fe(III)-EDTA. The enzyme was a 26 kDa protein, and its N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed it to be DrgA protein previously reported as quinone reductase [Matsuo M, Endo T and Asada K (1998)Plant Cell Physiol39,751–755].

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  • This review describes studies of particular enzymatically catalyzed reactions to investigate the possibility that catalysis is mediated by protein dynamics. That is, evolution has crafted the protein backbone of the enzyme to direct vibrations in such a fashion to speed reaction. The review presents the theoretical approach we have used to investigate this problem, but it is designed for the nonspecialist.

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  • We present an array of force spectroscopy experiments that aim to identify the role of solvent hydrogen bonds in protein folding and chemical reactions at the single-molecule level. In our experiments we control the strength of hydrogen bonds in the solvent environment by substituting water (H2O) with deuterium oxide (D2O). Using a combination of force protocols, we demonstrate that protein unfolding, protein collapse, protein folding and a chemical reaction are affected in different ways by substituting H2O with D2O.

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  • Ferrochelatase catalyzes the insertion of ferrous ions into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. Previously, it was found that this enzyme also partici-pates in the reverse reaction of iron removal from heme. To clarify the role of the reverse reaction of ferrochelatase in cells, mouse liver mitochondria were fractionated to examine the localization of ferrochelatase, and it was found that the enzyme localizes not only to the inner membrane, but also to the outer membrane.

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  • Amongst a wide variety of different biochemical reactions in cellular car-bon metabolism, thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes catalyze the oxi-dative decarboxylation of 2-keto acids. This type of reaction typically involves redox coupled acyl transfer to CoA or phosphate and is mediated by additional cofactors, such as flavins, iron-sulfur clusters or lipoamide swinging arms, which transmit the reducing equivalents that arise during keto acid oxidation to a final electron acceptor.

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  • CTP synthase catalyzes the reaction glutamine + UTP +ATPfiglutamate + CTP + ADP + Pi.The rate of the reaction is greatly enhanced by the allosteric activator GTP.We have studied the glutaminase half-reactionofCTP synthase from Lactococcus lactisand its response to the allosteric activator GTP and nucleotides that bind to the active site. In contrast to what has been found for the Escherichia colienzyme, GTP activation of the L. lactis enzyme did not result in similarkcat values for the glutami-nase activity and glutamine hydrolysis coupled to CTP synthesis. ...

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