When analyzing kinetic data or designing a chemical reactor, it is important
to state clearly the definitions of reaction rate, conversion, yield, and selectivity.
For a homogeneous reaction, the reaction rate is defined either as the
amount of product formed or the amount of reactant consumed per unit
volume of the gas or liquid phase per unit time. We generally use moles
(g mol, kg mol, or lb mol) rather than mass to define the rate, since
this simplifies the material balance calculations.
We seek to design reaction vessels, i.e. chemical reactors, where a particular chemical reaction (or set of
reactions) is carried out. The first decision we take involves the configuration of the reactor and its mode of
operation. This means we must decide what reactor type (and reactor shape) to select and whether it would be
advantageous to operate in batch or continuous mode.
Chemical reaction engineering is concerned with the exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. It's goal is the successful design and operation of chemical reactors. This text emphasizes qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. Simple ideas are treated first, and are then extended to the more complex.
The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) was established in 1985 by
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) for the express purpose
of assisting the Chemical and Hydrocarbon Process Industries in avoiding
or mitigating catastrophic chemical accidents. To achieve this goal, CCPS
has focused its work on four areas:
• establishing and publishing the latest scientific and engineering practices
(not standards) for prevention and mitigation of incidents involving
toxic and/or reactive materials,...
This book covers a number of developing topics in mass transfer processes in multiphase
systems for a variety of applications. The book eff ectively blends theoretical,
numerical, modeling, and experimental aspects of mass transfer in multiphase systems
that are usually encountered in many research areas such as chemical, reactor,
environmental and petroleum engineering.
In this chapter attention is focused on a representative volume of the reactor. This
volume contains one single fluid phase only. It is uniform in composition and
temperature. If the reactor is spatially uniform, the representative volume is the
total volume; if not, the representative volume is limited to a differential element
— a “point”.