Chemical recycling

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  • If the 20th century could be characterized by the rapid increase in the production and consumption of materials that helped improving the standards of living, then the 21st certainly has many elements to qualify as the century of recycling. Since the duration of life of a number of wastes is very small (roughly 40% have duration of life smaller than one month), there is a vast waste stream that reaches each year to the final recipients creating a serious environmental problem.

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  • CCR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds several natural chemokines but it is alsoa coreceptor for the entryof M tropic strains of HIV-1 into cells. Levels of CCR5 on the cell surface are important for the rate ofHIV-1 infectionand are determined by a number of factors including the rates of CCR5 internalization and recycling. Here we investigated the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the control of ligand-induced internalization and recycling of CCR5.

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  • Batteries are generally galvanic cells which convert chemical energy into electrical energy. As mobile sources of energy, we can no longer imagine life in the modern world without them. Every year in Germany, approximately 1 billion portable batteries are sold, an equivalent of around 30,000 tons (Table 19.1). We can state that 85% of the battery market comprises non-rechargeable primary batteries and 15% rechargeable secondary batteries.

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  • The Chempolis process is also based on using formic and acetic acid (Rousu & Rousu 2000, Rousu et al. 2003, Anttila et al. 2006) as cooking chemicals to produce pulp, biochemicals and biofuels from non-wood raw materials. Formic acid is the main component in cooking liquor. After cooking, the pulp is washed and pressed in several stages with formic acid. The last washing stage is performed at a high pulp consistency with performic acid. Then, the pulp is bleached with alkaline peroxide. Spent cooking liquor can be evaporated to 90% dry solids and incinerated.

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  • Hexabromobenzene (HBB) has been used as a flame retardant in polymers, plastics, textiles, wood and paper. Its primary uses have been reported in the plastics, paper and electrical industries (Bruchajzer et al., 2004). U.S. production/import volume was listed as 10,000- 500,000 pounds for 1998, but no information is available beyond that time (U.S. EPA, 2002). In addition to its use as a flame retardant, HBB is a thermal decomposition product of octa- and decaBDEs and hexabromobiphenyl (as cited in Bruchajzer et al., 2004).

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  • Care should be taken in choosing preservatives. For example, Method 5035 notes that, “Soil samples that contain carbonate minerals (either from natural sources or applied as an amendment) may effervesce upon contact with the acidic preservative solution in the low concentration sample vial.” Therefore, calcareous soils that effervesce on contact with the preservative solution, which is intended for low-level samples, should be preserved using an alternative technique.

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  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids present on mam-malian plasma membranes, where they participate in cell-surface events such as modulation of growth factor receptors and cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. Antibodies to gangliosides have been associated with a wide range of clinically identifiable acute and chronic neuropathy syn-dromes.

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  • Application of sewage sludge to agricultural land may be beneficial because it can improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which may enhance crop growth (BECK et al. 1996). To achieve this, sludge application cannot just be a way of disposing of the sludges but a deliberate application in order to recycle nutrients and to restitute organic matter to soils in order to prevent over-exploitation of agricultural soils in the Community (MARMO 2000).

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  • Pollution prevention. IPPC presumes the use of preventative techniques before any consideration of end-of-pipe control techniques. Many pollution prevention techniques can be applied to LVOC processes and Section 5.2 describes them in terms of source reduction (preventing waste arisings by modifications to products, input materials, equipment and procedures), recycling and waste minimisation initiatives. Air pollutant control.

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  • Furthermore metals are not renewable, although their reserves may last for several hundred years. Therefore, in general terms, in order to reduce the environmental impacts of metals, the most straightforward criteria would be to reduce the amount of metals used in favour of wood (-based) materials. Increasing the share of recycled materials in metal also considerably reduces the energy needed to produce steel and aluminium. For example the energy needed to produce 1kg of 100%-recycled aluminium is approximately 10% of that needed for the production of primary aluminium.

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  • The first part refers to environmental biotechnology and includes two chapters regarding total recycling of agricultural and food wastes through the biodegradation and bioconversion processes that are performed by selected microbial species in controlled cultivation systems. The next chapter is dedicated to the biotechnology of biopolymer producing by saving energy comparing with the conventional chemical processes.

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  • Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity— that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems, these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.

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  • Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect and utilise natural resources, control environmental pollution, improve environmental quality to enable healthy ecosystems and comfortable habitation of humans. It is based on multiple disciplines including geology, hydrology, biology, chemistry, physics, medicine, engineering, management, economics, law, etc.

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  • Biofertilisers are defined in this application as microbial inoculants, isolated from soil or the rhizosphere of plants, assisting the mobilisation of soil nutrients such as N and P and others in the plant rhizosphere and thus promoting the growth rate and yield of plants. Successful biofertilisers can contribute to increases in food production in a highly sustainable manner, with economic and environmental advantages.

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  • Lead is the most pervasive pollutant found in the Blacksmith Institute’s database and is a well-documented health hazard. The Blacksmith Institute has identified over 500 sites polluted by lead, putting an estimated 16 million people at risk. Based on the Blacksmith Institute’s investigations, the top sources contributing to lead pollution, by population, are lead smelting, mining and ore processing, industrial estates and lead-acid battery recycling and manufacturing.

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  • Earth's ecosystems continue to exist because they are sustainable. Two fundamental characteristics are crucial to sustainability. First, ecosystems' energy source, the Sun, is non-depletable and non-polluting. Second, there is efficient recycling of nutrients and other chemicals through organisms and through geological and chemical processes that result in no waste accumulation in ecosystems. This chapter provide knowledge of ecosystems: How they work.

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