Chemical separations

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  • This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena.

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  • Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state (solid, liquid, gas, dissolved). Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate. Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.

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  • When the field of microfluidics emerged in the early 1990s, it was primarily focused on the development of analytical microdevices. Since then, microfluidics has expanded its influence into virtually every branch of science and engineering. There are many driving forces behind this explosive growth. To name a few: • Scaling properties afforded by miniaturization are desirable for many applications. For example, enhanced mass transfer and heat dissipation enable faster chemical separations without sacrificing separation performance....

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  • Tham khảo sách 'filtration & separation technology', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, hoá học - dầu khí phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • January 2012 saw the completion of the U.S. Army’s Chemical Materials Agency’s (CMA’s) task to destroy 90 percent of the nation’s stockpile of chemical weapons. CMA completed destruction of the chemical agents and associated munitions stored at six of eight continental U.S. storage facilities as well as chemical weapons deployed overseas, which were transported to Johnston Atoll, southwest of Hawaii, and demilitarized there. The remaining 10 percent of the nation’s chemical weapons stockpile is stored at two remaining continental U.S.

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  • Analytical chemistry is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.[1] Qualitative analysis gives an indication of the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of components is often performed prior to analysis

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  • The successive editions of Principles and Practice of Analytical Chemistry have kept pace with the associated developments in the subject. Significant changes encompass strengthening of the coverage of data handling, together with new material covering rapidly developing subject areas of molecular spectrometry, atomic spectrometry, and separation techniques. Answers to the self- learning problems and exercises are also included. All sections of the book have been fully reviewed and updated as appropriate. ...

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  • Mass transfer in the multiphase multicomponent systems represents one of the most important problems to be solved in chemical technology, both in theoretical as well as practical point of view. In libraries all over the world, many books and articles can be found related to the mass transfer. Practically, all textbooks devoted to the separation processes or reaction engineering contain chapters describing the basic principles of the mass (and heat) transfer.

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  • Distillation is probably one of the oldest systematic processes in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering which goes back to the first century AD. The initial concepts were applied in the production of distilled water. Distillation was a single step batch process at the beginning. However, fractional distillation as is used today was developed more than 10 centuries later.

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  • Chirality plays a major role in biological processes, and the enantiomers of a bioactive molecule often possess different biological effects. For example, all pharmacological activity may reside in one enantiomer of a molecule, or enantiomers may have identical qualitative and quantitative pharmacological activity. In some cases, enantiomers may have qualitatively similar pharmacological activity, but different quantitative potencies.

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  • Petroleum mixtures consist primarily of relatively unreactive complex hydrocarbons covering a wide boiling range. Such mixtures are difficult to separate by most analytical techniques. Therefore, the petroleum industry has for many years played a leading role in the development of chromatographic methods of analysis. Since the last book specifically concerned with chromatographic analysis of petroleum appeared 15 years ago, numerous advances have been made including developments in liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography, ...

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  • Reactive liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic acids with amines and effect of solvating diluents; Liquid extraction of tall oil from wastewaters of paper industry • Supercritical fluid extraction of natural products; Enzymatic reactions in supercritical CO2; Solubilities of liquids and solids in dense CO2 with entrainer • Relation between the morphology and application properties of polymer catalysts and adsorbents • Study of the permeation and pervaporation of volatile organic substance (propan-1-ol, toluene) • Observation of the competitive adsorption on Vycor glass membr...

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  • Limitations: The Wurtz reaction is limited to the synthesis of symmetric alkanes from alkyl iodides & bromides. If two dissimilar alkyl halides are taken as reactants, then the product is a mixture of alkanes that is, often, difficult to separate. A side reaction also occurs to produce an alkene. The side reaction becomes more significant when the alkyl halides are bulky at the halogen-attached carbon.

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  •  IUPAC Definition: chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one of which is stationary while the other moves in a definite direction  Stationary phase (SP): common name for the column packing material in any type of chromatography  Mobile phase (MP): liquid media that continuously flows through the column and carries the analytes  Analyte: the chemical species being investigated (detected and quantitatively measured) by an analytical method...

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  • The chemistry of fine organic intermediates and products shows an enormous diversity. But in reality, the number of operations/processes used remains reasonably small. These include charging/discharging of reactants and solvents, inertisation, reactions, crystallisations, phase separations, filtrations, distillation, product washing. In many cases cooling, heating, or the application of vacuum or pressure is necessary. The unavoidable waste streams are treated in recovery/abatement systems or disposed of as waste.

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  • A thermodynamic decription of a process need a well - defined system. A thermodynamic system contain everything of thermodynamic interest for a particular chemical process within a boundary.. The buondary is either a real or hypothetical enclosure or sufaces that confines the system and separates it from it's surrounding

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  • Nowadays, Chromatography is the most versatile and widespread technique employed in modern chemical analysis and plays a vital role in the advancement of chemistry, biology, medicine and related fields of research. Because of the inherent simplicity and ease of operation, it can be used together with a wide range of detection systems, including electrochemical, photometric and mass spectrometry, being an invaluable laboratory tool for the separation and identification of compounds.

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  • Air samples for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were collected on treated silica-gel cartridges (P/N WAT047205, Waters Corp.) using separate pumps. Sampling flow rates were 2.0 L min-1 collected over 15 min to 30 min yielding sample volumes of about 30 L to 60 L. Each cartridge was extracted with 2 mL of acetonitrile. Extracts were analyzed by high- performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector at a wavelength of 365 nm following ASTM D 5197 (ASTM, 1997a). Extract concentrations were determined from multi- point calibrations of external standard mixtures. ...

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  • Now an established handbook of principles and techniques, this text develops an understanding of the relevance of four fundamental properties of the analyte: shape, polarity, charge and size, to the three key types of analysis: separation, identification and quantification. The third edition of Analytical Biochemistry has now been fully updated in content and format, making it even more accessible to students learning how to select analytical techniques and recognise their scope and limitations.

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  • Education has become the number one demanded commodity for social and economic transformation for both developing and developed economies. Thus the number of persons going and returning to school has become too big to be handled by existing brick and mortar learning institutions. Besides, the majority of lifelong learners do not have the time to become full-time students. Distance education is becoming the solution to the aforementioned challenges. It has been defined as the mode of study where the learner is separated in time and space from the institution and tutors providing the tuition....

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