Xem 1-20 trên 66 kết quả Chemical toxicology
  • The first edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1989) was written to bridge the gap between toxicology and chemistry. It defined toxicological chemistry as the science that deals with the chemical nature and reactions of toxic substances, their origins and uses, and the chemical aspects of their exposure, transformation, and elimination by biological systems. It emphasized the chemical formulas, structures, and reactions of toxic substances. The second edition of Toxicological Chemistry (1992) was significantly enlarged and increased in scope compared to the first edition.

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  • The field of toxicology has grown enormously since Industrial Toxicology: Safety and Health Applications in the Workplace was first published in 1985. And while the original edition was hugely popular among occupational health professionals, the time is ripe to address toxic agents not only in the industrial setting but also in the environment at large.

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  • Risk assessment is an inexact science. Successful risk assessment practitioners rely heavily on extensive and well-documented databases.

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  • This book is written with the objective of providing fundamental knowledge concerning the biological and health effects of environmental pollutants on living systems. The book emphasizes the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in our environment and their impacts on the health of living organisms, including not only humans and animals but also plants.

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  • Risk assessment of chemical substances is an ever-developing discipline. Transparent and accurate risk assessments are necessary for decision-makers to make wise risk management decisions. The outcome of risk assessments may have enormous economical consequences, in addition to the consequences for human health and the environment. Globalization is a fact, with huge possibilities for economic and social prosperity. Food and consumer products are produced in one part of the world and put on the market in another....

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  • The public demand for the protection of human and environmental health has led to the establishment of toxicology as the science of the action of chemicals on biological systems. Toxicological research is focused presently very much on the elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity and the application of this knowledge in safety evaluation and risk assessment.

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  • The past century has seen a tremendous expansion in the number of synthetic chemicals employed by humankind as materials, drugs, preservatives for foods and other products, pesticides, cleaning agents, and even weapons of war. An estimated 64,000 chemicals are currently in use commercially, with 5 billion tons being produced annually in the world. Some 4000 chemicals are used as medicinals and at least 1200 more as household products. An estimated 700 new chemicals are synthesized each year.

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  • There is a commonly held myth in our society that anything that is “natural” is good, wholesome, and healthful, whereas anything that is “synthetic” is bad, toxic, and harmful. The mere mention of the word chemical is enough to strike terror into the heart of any food faddist. This attitude is, at best, naïve and, at worst, dangerous.

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  • Preparations derived from Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegl. mycelium are worldwide used as dietary supplements containing compounds active as immune system enhancers, demonstrating chemopreventive and anticancer activity. L. edodes mycelium enriched with organic forms of selenium like selenized yeast possess putative, higher cancer preventive properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water and alcohol extracts from mycelium of L. edodes (Berk.).

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  • Paradoxically, skin is both a primary barrier to systemic absorption of topically exposed chemicals and a portal to systemic delivery of transdermal medicaments. Knowledge of the factors that determine both extent and rate of chemical flux across the skin is an important component of both toxicology and pharmacology studies. The aim of this book is to provide current approaches and techniques by which dermal absorption may be quantitated utilizing end points relative to these two disciplines.

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  • Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.

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  • This book stems from the author’s experience with a variety of problems on the fate, distribution, and toxicity of organic compounds in the aquatic environment. It became increasingly clear that the procedures for investigating these problems crossed the traditional boundaries of organic and analytical chemistry, microbiology, and biology, and after many years this resulted in the idea of selecting the relevant aspects of these and writing the present book

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  • The mode of action of pesticides is extremely fascinating because the subject covers so many fields of biology and chemistry and has many practical implications. All disciplines of biology have developed greatly since 1,1,1-trichloro- di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane — better known as DDT — and the other synthetic pesticides were introduced just after the Second World War.

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  • Environmental forensics is the systematic examination of environmental information used in litigation. The purpose of this book is to provide a working reference for the practicing environmental attorney or environmental consultant. As a working reference, the topics and examples selected are common denominator issues encountered in environmental litigation; as such, this book is not intended to be a treatise on a particular subject but rather to present information that you will likely encounter.

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  • How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.

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  • Since the Second World War, and especially since the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962, there has been growing concern about contamination of the environment by “man-made” chemicals. These chemicals may be present in industrial and municipal effluents, in consumer or commercial products, in mine tailings, in petroleum products, and in gaseous emissions. Some chemicals such as pesticides may be specifically designed to kill biota present in natural or agricultural ecosystems. They may be organic, inorganic, metallic, or radioactive in nature.

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  • Emergency responders are trained primarily to respond to fires or hazardous materials accidents. However, with the increase of terrorism in the United States, it is increasingly important that emergency response teams are trained to handle incidents involving biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. Utilizing recent case studies and interviews, this book presents a framework for emergency response to terrorist and criminal acts.

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  • Food can be defined as the nutritive material taken into an organism for growth, work, or repair and for maintaining the vital processes. Food sustains life, and, as such, many individuals view food as an uncomplicated, pure source of nutrition. Therefore, such individuals are often bewildered to learn that food is comprised of an array of natural chemicals, and not all the chemicals are nutrients or enhance nutritive value, but in fact may decrease nutritional value or, worse still, are toxic (e.g., naturally occurring toxicants).

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  • The Human Developmental Toxicants Database (HumDevTox) is a chemical structure–chemical property–biological activity database for 50 known agents that adversely affect human development as a result of exposure prior to conception or during prenatal and postnatal development. The developmental effects elicited include growth retardation, death, structural abnormality, and functional deficits.

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  • Pentachlorophenol (penta or PCP) was first introduced for use as a wood preservative in 1936 by Dow Chemical Company and Monsanto Chemical Com- pany.1 Penta has since been used as an herbicide on ornamental lawns, golf courses, aquatic areas, and rights-of-way; for control of subterranean termites; as an anti-microbial agent in cooling tow- ers, adhesives, latex paints, paper coatings, cements used with food can ends and seals, coatings in reusable bulk food storage containers, photographic solutions, leather tanneries, and pulp and paper mills; and, as a disinfectant....

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