Estimating the transport and fate of chemicals released into the environment is an
interesting and challenging task. The global environment is large on the chemical
transport and fate scale. This text applies the mathematics of diffusion, turbulent
diffusion, and dispersion to the atmosphere, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and oceans, as
well as transport between these media. The book follows a new educational paradigm
of textbooks, in that it is based on examples and case studies.
This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the
principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in
school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary
knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to
the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable.
For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided.
Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for
design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for
quick evaluations of detailed work....
This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena.
The Workshop on Energy and Transportation took place on January 7-9,
2002, in Washington, DC. This workshop was the second in a series of workshops
that comprise the study Challenges in the Chemical Sciences in the 21st
Century. The purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of the current status
of the chemical sciences, including chemistry and chemical engineering, and its
interfaces with other disciplines such as mechanical engineering, physics, materials
science, and the biological sciences.
Cerium, an element in the lanthanide series, has a number of
radioactive isotopes. Several of these are produced in abundance in
nuclear fission reactions associated with nuclear industry operations
or detonation of nuclear devices. This report summarizes our present
knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties
of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines.
Việc sử dụng những mối tương quan trong việc xác định sự truyền động lượng, truyền năng lượng và truyền khối từ pha này sang pha khác dưới những điều kiện trạng thái ổn định đã được trình bày trong chương 4. Mặc dù một vài ví dụ trong chương 4 sử dụng sự bảo toàn vĩ mô, việc giải quyết có hệ thống của những cân bằng này cho sự bảo toàn chemical species, khối lượng và năng lượng không được trình bày.
January 2012 saw the completion of the U.S. Army’s Chemical Materials
Agency’s (CMA’s) task to destroy 90 percent of the nation’s stockpile of chemical
weapons. CMA completed destruction of the chemical agents and associated munitions
stored at six of eight continental U.S. storage facilities as well as chemical weapons
deployed overseas, which were transported to Johnston Atoll, southwest of Hawaii, and
demilitarized there. The remaining 10 percent of the nation’s chemical weapons stockpile
is stored at two remaining continental U.S.
Things only move when they are forced to move! A bicycle only moves when a force is applied
in the form of pedaling. A cloud on the sky only moves when a force is applied in the form of a
storm or a wind. A soccer ball only flies into the goal net when a force in the form of a beautiful
and precise shot from Peter Møller or another great soccer player is applied. Thus all sorts of
transport only take place when a force, called a driving force, is applied. This is also the case
when we are talking about transport of other...
Methanosarcina mazeiis a methanogenic archaeon that is able to thrive on
various substrates and therefore contains a variety of redox-active proteins
involved in both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound electron transport. The
organism possesses a complex branched respiratory chain that has the abil-ity to utilize different electron donors.
The genome ofEscherichia colicontains four genes assigned to the peptide
transporter (PTR) family. Of these, only tppB (ydgR) has been character-ized, and named tripeptide permease, whereas protein functions encoded by
the yhiP, ybgHandyjdLgenes have remained unknown.
Secondary transmembrane transport carriers fall into families and super-families allowing prediction of structure and function. Here we describe
hundreds of sequenced homologues that belong to six families within a
novel superfamily, the bile⁄arsenite⁄riboflavin transporter (BART) super-family, of transport systems and putative signalling proteins.
The divalent metal transporter (DMT1) is a 12-transmem-brane domain protein responsible for dietary iron uptake in
the duodenum and iron acquisition from transferrin in
peripheral tissues. The transmembrane domain 4 (TM4)
of DMT1 has been shown to be crucial for its biological
function. Here we report the 3D structure and topology of
the DMT1-TM4 peptide by NMR spectroscopy with
simulated annealing calculations in membrane-mimetic
environments, e.g. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and SDS micelles.
The interaction of the antibacterial phosphonodipeptide
/peptide cotransporters was
studied in Caco-2 cells, expressing the low-affinity intestinal
type peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), and SKPT cells,
expressing the high-affinity renal type peptide transporter 2
(PEPT2). Alafosfalin strongly inhibited the uptake of
C]glycylsarcosine withKi values of 0.19 ± 0.01 mMand
0.07 ± 0.01 mMfor PEPT1 and PEPT2, respectively.
In an effort to shed more light on the early evolutionary history of the
heavy-chain subunits of heteromeric amino acid transporters (hcHATs)
rBAT and 4F2hc within the a-amylase family GH13, a bioinformatics
study was undertaken.
Mammalian glycerol uptake⁄transporter 1 (Gup1), a homolog of Saccharo-myces cerevisiaeGup1, is predicted to be a member of the membrane-boundO-acyltransferase family and is highly homologous to mammalian
hedgehog acyltransferase, known as Skn, the homolog of the Drosoph-ila skinny hedgehog gene product.
During adipocyte differentiation, there is an underlying complex series of
gene expressions. We have previously isolated many genes whose expres-sion levels are quickly elevated by the addition of inducers to mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Here we report the isolation and characterization of
SLC39A14, a member of the LZT proteins, one of the subfamilies of ZIP
Cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disease caused by an accumulation of
insoluble cystine in the lumen of the lysosome. CTNSencodes the lyso-somal cystine transporter, mutations in which manifest as a range of
disorders and are the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi
syndrome. Cystinosin, theCTNSproduct, is highly conserved among mam-mals.
The mammalian members of the inorganic phosphate (Pi
) transporter (PiT)
family, the type III sodium-dependent phosphate (NaP
i) transporters PiT1
and PiT2, have been assigned housekeeping Pi transport functions and are
suggested to be involved in chondroblastic and osteoblastic mineralization
and ectopic calcification.
Assembly of the components of the thylakoidDpH-dependent/Tat protein transport machinery was analyzed
in vitro. Upon incubation with intact chloroplasts, precur-sors to all three components, Hcf106, cpTatC and Tha4,
were imported into the organelle and assembled into char-acteristic endogenous complexes. In particular, all of the
imported cpTatC and approximately two-thirds of the
imported Hcf106functionally assembled into 700 kDa
complexes capable of binding Tat pathway precursor pro-teins.
A cDNA was cloned from the cabbage looperTricho-plusia ni based on similarity to other cloned dopamine
transporters (DATs). The total nucleotide sequence is 3.8kb
in length and contains an open reading frame for a protein
of 612 amino acids. The predicted moth DAT protein
(TrnDAT) has greatest amino acid sequence identity with
Drosophila melanogasterDAT (73%) andCaenorhabdi-tis elegans DAT (51%). TrnDAT shares only 45% amino
acid sequence identity with an octopamine transporter
(TrnOAT) cloned recently from this moth. ...