established in the earliest history of the planet or as
the result of a continuing supply of water and the
constituents of sea water by degassing from the
In 1951 W.W. Rubey, in his Presidential Address to
the Geological Society of America, took the latter point
of view. His arguments were colored by the knowledge
available at that time of the age of the Earth and the
age of the oldest rocks. Based on the analysis of lead
isotopes in galenas, it was determined in the late 1940s
that the Earth was about 3.2 billion years old.
This book explores the diversity of topics related to radiometric dating, with particular
emphasis on the method of radiocarbon dating and a cross-check of its results with
Chemistry and the global carbon cycle is an essential element of life on Earth, because
carbon is a component of every living cell, plants and animals. The radioactive isotope
14C was found useful for dating, for which in 1960 Willard Frank Libby received the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: Distinguish between matter, elements, and atoms; name the six elements that are basic to life; describe the structure of an atom; tell why an atom can have isotopes; give examples of how low levels and high levels of radiation can each be helpful;...
An element is a chemical substance that is made up of a particular kind of atoms and hence cannot be broken down or transformed by a chemical reaction into a different element, though it can be transmutated into another element through a nuclear reaction. This is so, because all of the atoms in a sample of an element have the same number of protons, though they may be different isotopes, with differing numbers of neutrons.
In Eastern Sea (South China Sea), Jurassic - Cretaceous magmatic intrusives are discovered, they were cutting the Pre-Cenozoic sedimentaries. The Cenozoic volcanic basalts are strongly distributed together with Cenozoic sedimentaries. The paper concerns only the volcanic activities with description on their geology, chemistry, geochemistry, isotopic ages and their forming mechanism. In fact, the main topic of the paper is dealt with the forming mechanism of basalt in the dynamics of the opening of Eastern Sea in particular, and of South China Sea in general.
Chemical Reference Materials: Setting the Standards for Ocean Science is
part of an evolving body of work being conducted by scientists and research
sponsors interested in ensuring the quality control of oceanographic
data. Chemical data collected during ongoing and future global
oceanographic studies and time-series efforts must be comparable over
time and among laboratories.