The role of the ATP-binding cassette ABCB1 in mediating the resistance to
chemotherapy in many forms of cancer has been well established. The pro-tein is also endogenously expressed in numerous barrier and excretory
tissues, thereby regulating or impacting on drug pharmacokinetic profiles.
Part 2 book "Antibacterial chemotherapy theory, problems, and practice" presentation of content: Sensitivity and identification tests, genetics of antibiotic resistance, multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and healthcare-acquired infections, anti-mycobacterium therapy, clinical use of antibiotics to prevent or control resistance.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Principles of pharmacology - The pathophysiologic basis of drug therapy" presentation of content: Principles of endocrine pharmacology, principles of inflammation and immune pharmacology, principles of chemotherapy, fundamentals of drug development and regulation, environmental toxicology,... and other content.
We live in a world heavily populated by microorganisms of astonishing diversity. Most of these exist in our external environment but certain classes are normally harboured within our bodies, especially colonising mucosal surfaces. Depending on the circumstances, infectious disease can arise from organisms living exogenously or endogenously, and a knowledge of common pathogens at specific sites often provides a good basis for rational initial therapy.
Infection is a major category of human disease and skilled management of antimicrobial drugs is of the first importance.The term chemotherapy is used for the drug treatment of parasitic infections in which the parasites (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, worms) are destroyed or removed without injuring the hostThe use of the term to cover all drug or synthetic drug therapy needlessly removes a distinction which is convenient to the clinician and has the sanction of long usage.
Among the subspecialties of internal medicine, medical oncology may have had the greatest impact
in changing the practice of medicine in the past four decades, as curative treatments have been
identified for a number of previously fatal malignancies such as testicular cancer, lymphomas, and
leukemia. New drugs have entered clinical use for disease presentations previously either
untreatable or amenable to only local means of therapy, such as surgery and irradiation.
Biotechnology: Changing Life Through Science is devoted to
helping younger students and general readers understand the
fast-developing science and issues related to technologies touching
on the most intimate and fundamental mechanisms of life.
Malaria, caused by four species of Plasmodium, of which Plasmodium falciparum is the most
dangerous, remains the world's most devastating human parasitic infection. This chapter deals with
the properties and uses of important drugs used to treat and prevent this infection. Highly effective
agents that act against asexual erythrocytic stages of malarial parasites responsible for clinical
attacks include chloroquine, quinine, quinidine, mefloquine, atovaquone, and the artemisinin
Velocity encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (VE-PC MRI) is another
imaging technique used to noninvasively measure Achilles tendon strain and changes in its
force-displacement relationship concomitant with chronic unloading and subsequent
recuperation. This technique will be reviewed in terms of its ability to quantify the Achilles
tendon Young’s modulus (MPa) from a stress-strain curve.
Hospitals, by their very nature, are dangerous places. Sick and infected patients
are clustered together in one institution, often in close proximity to those who are
immunosuppressed due to recent surgery, chemotherapy or transplantation. Contact
between these various patient groups is easily achieved via the hands of healthcare
workers (HCWs), use of shared equipment or the hospital’s air handling system.
Contact between mothers inside prison and their children outside prison may be severely
and/or inappropriately restricted. In some countries, mothers are temporarily separated (such
as by stopping visits) from the children to punish the mother (Robertson, 2008). Children are
a life-sustaining force for many prisoners, and breaking up the bond between the mother and
child is often punishment of the worst kind for the mother (United Nations Office on Drugs
and Crime, 2008) and strongly affects her physical and mental health. It also punishes the
child, who has done nothing wrong. ...
For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated
by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic
was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or
semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial
agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be
on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of
Recent reductions in cancer mortality are
due in part to risk reduction behaviors like
smoking cessation and more strongly to early
detection of cancer coupled with appropriate
therapy. Yet, there are no validated molecular
biomarker tests for the early detection of any
cancer (see Table I). Among the list of Food
and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved
biomarkers, none have been approved for
cancer early detection and screening.
There is a pervasive perception among providers that treating patients with TB on an outpatient basis will lead to increased TB transmission. With the advent of modern antituberculosis chemotherapy, admission to the hospital has been shown not to be necessary for effective treatment of TB. Studies have shown that, not only does outpatient treatment of TB achieve cure rates comparable to inpatient care, outpatient therapy is not associated with an increase in TB transmission in the community.
While researching this book, I came across a letter in the journal Nature asking for
caution in the current trend for the use of humorous nomenclature for newly
discovered genes1, the author referring to the tumour suppressor gene Pokemon,
which I have briefly described in Chapter 4.
A number of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy induce oxidative
stress by generation of oxygen free radicals (ROS) which might
be an alternative mechanism for their cytotoxic effect via indu-cing apoptosis. In order to clarify the roles of antioxidants in
chemotherapy, we investigated Quercetin (3,3’,4’,5,7-pentahyd-roxyflavone) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in different cell types
treated with anticancer drugs. We studied cytotoxic activity of
Topotecan alone and/or in combination with Quercetin in two
human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. ...
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women with gynecologic malignancies in the United States. Advanced ovarian cancers are difficult to cure with the current available chemotherapy, which has many associated systemic side effects. Doxorubicin is one such chemotherapeutic agent that can cause cardiotoxicity. Novel methods of delivering chemotherapy without significant side effects are therefore of critical need.
The field of antiviral therapy—both the number of antiviral drugs and our understanding of their optimal use—continues to lag behind the field of antibacterial drug treatment, in which 70 years of experience have now been accumulated, but significant progress has been made in recent years on new drugs for several viral infections. The development of antiviral drugs poses several challenges. Viruses replicate intracellularly and often employ host cell enzymes, macromolecules, and organelles for synthesis of viral particles.
Join a support group. Cancer support groups provide
support for people with cancer. These groups allow you to
meet others with the same problems. You will have a chance
to talk about your feelings and listen to other people talk
about theirs. You can find out how others cope with cancer,
chemotherapy, and side effects. Your doctor, nurse, or social
worker may know about support groups near where you live.
Some support groups also meet online (over the Internet),
which can be helpful if you cannot travel....