This is the first paper using household survey data from two countries involved in an
international war (Eritrea and Ethiopia) to measure the conflict’s impact on children’s health in
both nations. The identification strategy uses event data to exploit exogenous variation in the
conflict’s geographic extent and timing and the exposure of different children’s birth cohorts
to the fighting. The paper uniquely incorporates GPS information on the distance between
survey villages and conflict sites to more accurately measure a child’s war exposure.
Congress is considering a comprehensive overhaul of the nationżs immigration laws more than a decade after the enactment of strict immigration measures. Current U.S. immigration laws mandate deportation of lawful permanent resident (LPR) parents of thousands of U.S. citizen children, without providing these parents an opportunity to challenge their forced separations. Through a multi-disciplinary analysis, this policy brief examines the experiences of U.S. citizen children impacted by the forced deportation of their LPR parents and proposes ways to reform U.S.
Within specific geographic areas, GHI Kenya will identify existing activities and programmatic
gaps and, in the intensified areas, new potential synergies between USG agencies/programs and the
GOK towards maternal, neonatal and child mortality and NTD morbidity and mortality reduction.
Illustrative activities described in Appendix 1 are part of standard care and management practices.
No one in Macedonia knows the real picture. How many are employed and
not reported or registered? How many are registered as unemployed but
really have a job? How many are part time workers – as opposed to full time
workers? How many are officially employed (de jure) – but de facto
unemployed or severely underemployed? How many are on “indefinite”
vacations, on leave without pay, etc.?
The Statistics Bureau must be instructed to make the gathering and analysis
of data regarding the unemployed (through household surveys and census, if
necessary) – a TOP PRIORITY....
Desai et al. (2004) provide a meta-analysis of health effects from household solid fuel air
pollution. Health effects were categorized by level of evidence from the research
literature. Relative risk ratios associated with solid fuel use, relative to clean fuels such
as LPG, were derived for each health outcome (table 3.1).
The national and global
mortality and DALY estimates presented by WHO (2007) reflect the relative risk ratios in
Desai et al, limiting the health effects to ALRI in children u5, and COPD and lung cancer
in adult women and men.
A close look at the different studies which deal with errors, the critics of
error analysis have suggested, will clarify the discrepancy that exists among
the findings reached by different researchers. What might be an interference
error in one study is a developmental one in another. The conclusion that
might be reached is that error analysis, to some extent, is impressionistic,
and that is really a serious problem error analysis suffers from.
Results from the univariate analysis of prostate cancer mortality and incidence do not take
into account the effect of different covariables, which might influence the SMR and SIR.
Various covariables where considered to model longitudinal effects: age, calendar year, year
of immigration, length of stay in Germany; cohort was considered for the analysis of
Multivariate Poisson regression did not show any significant effect of the considered
covariables on mortality (data not shown).
As individual participants in reproductive health, men face obstacles related to traditional
attitudes and practices and to a lack of information and services. Overcoming social and
cultural obstacles requires more educational efforts, particularly directed to youth and their
parents. Research to support these efforts should identify the specific traditional attitudes
that need to be addressed.
Household and individual variables were collected using an extensive household survey that includes
information on household structure, household consumption, expenditure, income, health indicators
and educational attendance. The survey was conducted between June and October of 2002. In this
subsection, we will comment on the main variables used in the analysis. Table 1 gives the descriptive
statistics and definitions of the variables.
Though the survey was administered to 122 municipalities, we can only have 102 in our estimating
There is no direct gold standard evidence or specific UK or European consensus guidelines for
monitoring the growth of children with moderate to severe renal disease. This document therefore
aims to define minimum standards for measuring and monitoring growth in children with CKD, based
on local expert opinion, international committee reports, and indirectly supportive peer-reviewed
clinical trials and reviews.
This book examines how professionals practising in various health and welfare
settings go about the ordinary, but complicated, business of making sense
of the symptoms and troubles with which their patients or clients present.
Our motivations for writing the book are varied, but are the result of our
conversations with each other about the problem of judgement in clinical
practice, which have taken place over many years of professional, academic
and research collaboration.
Combining investment in public transportation capital and operations within the
US, the analysis indicates that an average of 36,000 jobs are supported for one
year, per billion dollars of annual spending on public transportation, given the
existing mix of operations (71 percent) and capital (29 percent) expenditures.
There is increasing recognition that health and educational outcomes are inextricably linked,
and that the school can be an ideal setting through which to strive for both. A number of
international efforts have been developed in the past decade to improve both learning and
health through schools.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the
history of the Eritrea-Ethiopia conflict and sketches the spatial and temporal event data for the
most recent war. Section 3 describes the survey data used in the analysis and explains the key
variables. Section 4 describes the empirical identification strategy and Section 5 presents the
main results as well as robustness tests. Section 6 concludes.
The Kenya Working Papers series is an unreviewed, unedited prepublication series of papers
reporting on studies in progress. This paper is based on further analysis of data collected in the
2004 Kenya HIV/AIDS and Maternal and Child Health Service Provision Assessment (KSPA).
The 2004 KSPA was supported by the United States Agency for International Development
(USAID), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the U.K. Department for
International Development (DFID).
Gaynes et al. (109) did a meta-analysis of screening instruments (i.e., EPDS, Beck Depression
Inventory (BDI), Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS), and the Center for
Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)) for depression and concluded that, "various
screening instruments can identify perinatal depression". They concluded that these instruments
have high specificity and low sensitivity for depressive states, and this acquires a greater
importance when deciding on whether false-positives or false-negatives are preferred.
By focusing on the disease endpoint, and how various kinds of diseases are
impacted by environmental influences, the analysis forges new ground in an
understanding of interactions between environment and health. The estimates,
in effect, reflect how much death, illness and disability could realistically be
avoided every year as a result of reduced human exposures to environmental
Specifically considered here are "modifiable" environmental factors realistically
amenable to change using available technologies, policies, and preventive and
public health measures.
This book emerges from two separate, but intersecting, strands
of work that began in the late 1980s, when the World Bank ini-
tiated a review of priorities for the control of specific diseases.
The review generated findings about the comparative cost-
effectiveness of interventions for most diseases important in
developing countries. The purpose of the cost-effectiveness
analysis (CEA) was to inform decision making within the
health sectors of highly resource-constrained countries.
After many years of practice as an analyst of adults and children, I
came to realize that my work was based on a principle of which
I was not consciously aware. Even though the feedback on the quality
of my work (from colleagues and the patients themselves)
was, on the whole, positive, I had had no more than a handful of
patients who saw me for more than five years.