The ultimate sourcebook from America's leading alternative health expert.
Yes, you can feel better, look better, and extend the best years of your life through proper nutrition and exercise. And there is no better guide to optimum health than this classic reference and sourcebook.
The designations employed and the presentation of material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, its authorities, its current or former official name or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
Undernutrition affects large populations of boys and girls in developing countries. Its major
determinant is poverty, which usually combines with other important factors like poor
breastfeeding practices and inadequate complementary foods for babies, as well as lack of
basic health care, safe water and sanitation. Globally, about 150 million children under five
years are undernourished, which comprises 27% of the world’s population in this age group.
Twelve million of these children die every year, and protein-energy malnutrition is
implicated in more than 55% of all these deaths.
The result is that nearly 200,000 children and infants are dying each year in Afghanistan. Most of the causes of these deaths are preventable: the four highest causes of death in children, and the percentage of total of under 5 child deaths expected in 2009, are neonatal causes (41%), pneumonia (21%), and diarrhea (14%) and measles (4%). These four account for 80% of child deaths each year. The issue of general and micro-nutrient malnutrition underlies all the causes of death because children are much more vulnerable if they are malnourished: as much as half of child deaths would not occur...
So, for example, virtually all of the health conditions identified in the MDGs correlate with
income poverty. But the solution to good health is not simply poverty reduction – full stop.
Understanding the causal link is key.
Those at the bottom of a socially stratified world are vulnerable to economic shocks,
impoverishing effects of illness and co-morbidity—with one underlying condition (e.g.,
malnutrition or HIV/AIDS) making the development of another more likely (e.g., diarrhea or TB).
Increasingly, child morbidity and mortality is seen as a function of co-morbidity, with malnutrition
coinciding with other conditions such as measles, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and
The major factors that prevent children from attaining their genetic growth potential can be
divided into three types: insults in utero, infection, and the synergistic effect of infection and
malnutrition. The evidence that specific events in utero affect long-term health is well
established –consider, for example, rubella, thalidomide, smoking, and alcohol and drug abuse.
The long-term effects of such insults ultimately depend on a range of interrelated factors,
including maternal health status and the timing of the insult itself (Hall and Peckham, 1997).
"Diseases related to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene are a huge burden in developing countries. It is estimated that 88% of diarrhoeal disease is caused by unsafe water supply, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WHO, 2004c). Many schools serve communities that have a high prevalence of diseases related to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and where child malnutrition and other underlying health problems are common.
WBTi is a monitoring and evaluation tool initiated in Asia which uses the methodology and
philosophy of Global Participatory Action Research (GLOPAR)1993 developed by the World
Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) to track targets set by the Innocenti Declaration of 1990.
WBTi has also adopted the WHO (2003) monitoring and evaluation tool on Infant and Young Child
Feeding for assessing national practices, policies and programmes.
Child malnutrition - measured as poor
child growth - is internationally recognized
as an important public health indicator.
Young children are most vulnerable to
malnutrition and face the greatest risk
of its adverse consequences.
Malnutrition is caused not only by food
deprivation, but also by the debilitating
effects of infectious diseases, such as
diarrhoea and pneumonia, and lack of care.
It contributes to over half of child deaths.
Progress in reducing child malnutrition has
been slow (see Figure 1).
SCHIP’s success is contingent on children remaining
insured. SCHIP has not, however, served as a bridge
to private insurance coverage for children in the short
term. Few low-income children have access to
affordable private insurance. The vast majority of
SCHIP enrollees remained insured because they
continued to participate in public insurance. At
followup, nearly 80 percent of SCHIP enrollees were
enrolled in Medicaid or SCHIP.
Some SCHIP enrollees, however, became uninsured.
The health system is composed of the public sector, the for-profit private sector and the
non-profit private sector. Health care services are provided mainly through the public sector
network (NHS), which relies on 1277 health facilities (HF), organized in 4 levels, with a total
of 15 877 beds6
and around 26 000 health workers (Table 4). Level I offers essential primary
care services through 1224 HF (urban and rural health centres and health posts) representing
96% of all national HF.
A detailed situational analysis of the nutrition situation in country, determinants of malnutrition and
current nutrition interventions, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can be found
in annex 2. In brief, eighteen years of war and insecurity have had devastating effects on the
nutrition and health status of the people of Somalia, which was already precarious even before.
This book is for anyone with an interest in maternal
and child health, but in particular for people who can
play a role in strengthening it.
The Asia Pacific has some of the biggest health
challenges of any region. Here, health is a complex
issue, at the heart of community development and
wellbeing and yet held back by resources, attitudes and
traditions. These aspects come together as barriers
to deny fair access to health for more than half the
people living in the Asia Pacific.
Case studies show oxytocin and magnesium sulfate were included in national protocols for maternal health service
provision as well as the EML and standard treatment guidelines in the majority of countries reviewed (where national data
was collected and reported), including Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Mongolia, and India. Furthermore, the USAID/MCHIP
survey states that most countries—except Rwanda and Ethiopia—reported that they have magnesium sulfate on their
EMLs. Ethiopia reports that magnesium sulfate is under review, and it has plans to add it to the list soon.
Constraints in access to other basic
services: The weakening of public
infrastructure and service delivery at the
village level has resulted in the deprivation
of basic rights and services (health, water,
nutrition, sanitation, education, protection)
for women and children, especially for the
most vulnerable. As RedR India puts it in a
recent assessment conducted in
Chhattisgarh, “…prolonged civil strife in
Dantewada has limited the access to life
line services and resources.
Each year, millions of women and children die from preventable
causes. These are not mere statistics. They are people with names
and faces. Their suffering is unacceptable in the 21st century. We
must, therefore, do more for the newborn who succumbs to infection
for want of a simple injection, and for the young boy who will never
reach his full potential because of malnutrition. We must do more
for the teenage girl facing an unwanted pregnancy; for the married
woman who has found she is infected with the HIV virus; and for the
mother who faces complications in childbirth....
Malnutrition in all its forms either directly or indirectly is responsible for approximately
half of all deaths worldwide. This applies to perinatal and infectious diseases as well as
chronic diseases. Malnutrition accounts for 11% of the global burden of disease, leading
to long-term poor health and disability and poor educational and developmental
Worldwide, by 2010 it was found that about 104 million children under five years of age
were underweight and 171 million stunted.
ALRI mortality from SFU has most likely declined in the last decades, and is likely to
decline further even without a reduction in SFU or adoption of improved stoves. This
comes about from a reduction in ALRI case fatality rates through for instance improved
case management and reduction in malnutrition rates even in the event that incidence of
morbidity does not decline.
Affirming the right of every child and every pregnant and lactating woman to
be adequately nourished, as a means of attaining and maintaining health;
Recognizing that infant malnutrition is part of the wider problems of lack of
education, poverty, and social injustice;
Recognizing that the health of infants and young children cannot be isolated
from the health and nutrition of women, their socioeconomic status and their roles as
Conscious that breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for
the healthy growth and development of infants; that it forms a uniqu...