Childhood cancers

Xem 1-20 trên 84 kết quả Childhood cancers
  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Radiation Oncology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: A psychoeducational intervention reduces the need for anesthesia during radiotherapy for young childhood cancer patients....

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  • Standard treatment of anal cancer is a protocol of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Typically, a diagnosis of LSIL results only in more frequent monitoring in case it progresses to HSIL. When HSIL is diagnosed, treatment may be called for to reduce the likelihood of progres- sion to cancer. This may include surgical removal of the lesions. Data on the efficacy of treatment are scarce. However, treatment of cervical lesions has been shown to be effective in substantially reducing the risk of progression to cancer....

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  • Specific micronutrient deficiencies may affect maternal and foetal health. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause foetal brain damage and mental retardation in infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk in pregnant women of infection and anaemia, may cause blindness during pregnancy and early lactation, and has been associated to an elevated risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Folate deficiency may cause severe foetal neural tube defects like anencephaly and spina bifida.

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  • Storage of putative stem/progenitor cells is also an attractive research target in tissue engineering. Collection of cells for tissue engineering is less invasive than conventional tissue or organ transplantation. However, repetitive collection of cells can stress patients. If the stem/progenitor cells could be stored, it is possible that they could be repeatedly used for future therapy, reducing the burden and the cost to patients. The concept of banking stem/progenitor cells in storage is not new. Stem/progenitor cell populations decrease in size with age (D'Ippolito et al.

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  • When an infection occurs, immune cells flock to the area and secrete large amounts of highly reactive chemicals to combat the invader. But, these inflammatory chemicals also attack normal tissue surrounding the infection and damage critical components of cells, including DNA. During chronic inflammation, DNA damage may lead to mutations or cell death and even to cancer and other diseases.

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  • While researching this book, I came across a letter in the journal Nature asking for caution in the current trend for the use of humorous nomenclature for newly discovered genes1, the author referring to the tumour suppressor gene Pokemon, which I have briefly described in Chapter 4.

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  • Prostate cancer is the commonest male malignancy diagnosed in countries in the Western World and it represents the second commonest cause of male cancer-related death. In the United Kingdom in 2008 37,051 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed and this malignancy resulted in 10,168 deaths. The morbidity and mortality directly attributable to this common malignancy is considerable, however in some patients the disease is often relatively indolent.

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  • Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have the capacity to detect low-risk genetic susceptibility regions associated with prostate cancer with an increased risk varying between 14-52 % (table 3) (Schumacher et al. 2011, Witte 2009). Several recent studies incorporating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses in models predicting the diagnosis of prostate cancer upon biopsy have been published (Wiklund 2010, Aly et al. 2011, Witte 2009).

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  • EDRN is at the forefront of technology-driven research on the use of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. By identifying and validat- ing biomarkers, such as novel proteins or changes in gene expression, it is possible to measure an individual’s disease risk, progression of disease, or response to therapy. Ultimately, EDRN research will aid in prevention and in early therapeutic intervention, based on early detection of disease.

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  • Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in the developing world. 1 In Kenya it kills more people, male or female, than any other cancer and creates a heavy burden for women in the prime of life, for their families, and for the health care system. Age-standardized rates for Eastern Africa are among the highest in the world and are more than three times the rates in Europe and North America, where intensive screening programs and readily available treatment have brought cervical cancer incidence down from similarly high levels nearly a century ago.

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  • The constraints of limited infrastructure and resources in most developing countries and the low level of awareness of opportunities for preventing the disease stimulated the formation in 1999 of the international Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP), with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The purposes of the ACCP are to develop and evaluate innovative approaches in order to reach more women at high risk of cervical cancer with effective and feasible screening and treatment services and to persuade policymakers and program managers to make it a priority.

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  • The grade of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma is based on how much the cancer cells form glands that look like the glands found in normal, healthy endometrium. In lower- grade cancers (grades 1 and 2), more of the cancer cells form normal-looking glands. In higher-grade cancers (grade 3), more of the cancer cells are kind of jumbled up and do not form normal glands. Higher grade cancers tend to grow faster and are more likely to spread than lower grade cancers. Uterine carcinosarcoma (CS) is another cancer that starts in the endometrium and is covered here.

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  • Banks, Muriel and Smith (2010);Banks, Berkman, and Smith, 2011). Based on self-reported prevalence of seven important illnesses (diabetes, heart attack, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, diseases of the lung, and stroke), Americans were much less healthy than their English counterparts. These differences were large at all points of the SES distribution. Biological markers of disease showed similar health disparities between Americans and the English, suggesting that these large health differences were not a result of differential reporting of illne...

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  • The WHO analgesic ladder, which has the clear principle of regular “by the clock” oral medication, has helped cancer sufferers all round the world in a cost-effective manner. However, the increasing complexity of cancer and its treatment in the developed world has led to a dawning realisation of the limitations of the stepped analgesia approach. There is a need for different working models that recognise the limitations of the WHO ladder (Hanks, 2001; Wiffen, 2007).

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  • Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Diets high in vegetables and fruits, which are good sources of antioxidants, have been found to be healthy; however, research has not shown antioxidant supplements to be beneficial in preventing diseases. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, selenium, and carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.

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  • The pathology report answers questions about a breast abnormality Breast tissue can develop abnormalities that are sometimes cancerous. Usually breast cancer begins either in the cells of the lobules, which are milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. Breast cancers have many characteristics that help determine the best treatment. is the breast abnormality a cancer? A lump or spot in the breast can be made of normal cells or cancer cells. Cancer cells are cells that grow in an uncontrolled way.

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  • The pervasiveness of different modalities of TM and CAM varies greatly from country to country. For example, in China, where traditional Chinese medicine is well integrated into the health system,many different modalities may be used to treat a given condition. In the United States, by contrast, CAM pro- grams are slowly being integrated with conventional medicine. Several medical schools have nascent CAM programs and have integrated them into medical school curricula to differing degrees.

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  • Even incremental contributions to realizing improved health outcomes will deliver substantial social and economic benefits. When the funding request of $100 million for Canadian child health genomics research is compared to the short and long term benefits, it clearly delivers significant returns on investment. However, it must not be forgotten that it is fundamentally the lives of children that are at issue.

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  • The children protection began in 12th and 13th centuries in Aragón and Castilla after the promulgation of some laws by King Alfonso X “The Wise” of Castilla and King Pedro IV of Aragón. The first of them, in the law “Fuero Juzgo” sentenced the abortion and the infanticide. The second of them, King Pedro IV, created the figure of “Judge and Father of Orphans”, whose mission was to look after children's health, to keep them away of begging and to lead them to work. There even were centers where children received food and education. Bernardo Gordonio, in his book ...

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  • Nutrition is an important lifestyle factor that contributes to our general feeling well. Recently, it has even further suggested, based on a number of epidemiological studies, that our diet is also associated with the risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, such as diabetes type II, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, many types of cancer, just to name few. Thus, a balanced nutrition is firmly interwoven with many aspects of our long-term health, including the prevention of diseases, albeit this is typically rather associated with the medicinal areas.

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