Church architecture is a contentious ﬁeld of inquiry. Polemics, dog-
matism, and caricature abound. It would be unrealistic to think any
book could resolve the controversies, but a fresh look at the most
basic questions about churches, their meanings and their uses, may
prove useful to all sides. The incentive to write this book was mixed:
it grew out of historical interest, but also out of an urge to see more
clearly what churches have meant and what they can mean for com-
munities that build and use them.
There is no topographical division of Europe which more readily defines itself and its limits than the Rhine
valley from Schaffhausen to where the river empties into the North Sea.
The region has given birth to history and legend of a most fascinating character, and the manners and customs
of the people who dwell along its banks are varied and picturesque.
Under these circumstances it was but to be expected that architectural development should have expressed
itself in a decided and unmistakable fashion.
In gathering material for this handbook I have received valuable help from several friends, whose kindness
calls for grateful recognition. My thanks are due, in the first place, to the Rev. W. F. G. Sandwith, Rector of
St. Bartholomew-the-Great, and the lay custodians of the church, for the facilities which have allowed me to
examine the building in all its parts, and for the readiness with which they have given information, not
accessible elsewhere, on various points of its history and architecture.
The term ‘architectural tile scheme’ covers a very broad church of
ceramic decoration found usually on the inside but also frequently on
the outside of buildings. Tiles are superficial to the structure of the
building, being used to cover walls, floors and sometimes ceilings for
both functional and decorative reasons.
This volume is a sequel to the work I published, several years ago,
under the title, _Byzantine Constantinople: the Walls of the City, and
adjoining Historical Sites_. In that work the city was viewed, mainly,
as the citadel of the Roman Empire in the East, and the bulwark of
civilization for more than a thousand years. But the city of Constantine
was not only a mighty fortress.
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania. Its atmosphere is
a blend of the charms of the Baltic and Central
Europe. The small, cosy streets in the city centre,
characterized by Baroque architecture and a wealth
of churches, give way further out to modern
buildings and a cosmopolitan feel. Shopping
opportunities and cultural and gastronomic
experiences abound everywhere.
However, inﬂation is just the cosomological paradigm, not a theory! The known
ﬁeld-theoretical mechanisms of inﬂation use a slow-roll scalar ﬁeld φ (called inﬂaton) with
proper scalar potential V(φ) (12; 13).
The scale of inﬂation is well beyond the electro-weak scale, ie. is well beyond the Standard
Model of Elementary Particles! Thus the inﬂationary stage in the early universe is the most
powerful High-Energy Physics (HEP) accelerator in Nature (up to 1010 TeV).