This thesis is about the metaphors of the rainbow and the fogbow, investigations
and evaluations, public internet monitors, writing women, reflections and discussions
about politics, design and democracy. It is also about the ongoing re-structuring of
participation in service design within the development of eGovernment. The aim
behind the drive towards eGovernment is to modernise administration and make it
more efficient. The transformation and modernisation of public services are
proclaimed to bring about a change in services based on a ‘citizen-centred approach.
Urban design is a diffuse and abstract term. It means different things to
different people. For those not directly involved in its practice or aware of
its effects on their daily lives, it may not mean much, if anything at all. I first
heard the term in architecture school, but I didn’t really think much about
what it might mean until my schoolmate Jonathan Barnett started using it
to describe his aspiration to put together with some of his colleagues a
design capability in the New York City government.
The relationship with local governments and local communities is a new
concept accompanying the idea of decentralization. In Bolivia, citizen
participation is a condition for receiving fund support. Not only is it a
condition, but increasingly municipalities have to cofinance projects. Cen-
tral governments are transferring resources to the municipalities, and
citizen participation decides which projects the municipality wants to
cofinance. Cofinancing is realigning the funds with communities, and it
is helping them to prepare development plans....
Communities have different ways of organizing participation, for example
community assemblies, solidarity committees, and so on. Bolivia has an
interesting form of citizen participation called vigilance committees. These
committees oversee the proper expenditure of project money and the
mayor’s work in ensuring the needs and demands of communities are met.
The workshop’s participants are now asking whether projects built by
social funds are sustainable.
A maintenance culture, which means that what is built is maintained,
does not yet exist in Latin America. There is no reason to expect social
funds to ensure maintenance better than any of the other ministries. If
this culture is instituted, then projects will be sustained, both by the
ministries and by the social funds.
Citizen participation is emphasized greatly to achieve sustainable out-
comes of projects. There is nothing like money to sustain a project.
his report and a companion website (www.nae.edu/
techlit) are the final products of a two-year study by the
Committee on Technological Literacy, a group of experts
on diverse subjects under the auspices of the National Academy of
Engineering (NAE) and the Center for Education, part of the National
Research Council (NRC). The committee’s charge was to begin to
develop among relevant communities a common understanding of what
technological literacy is, how important it is to the nation, and how it can
t he idea for a book on the ethical and metaphorical aspects of communicating
the biosciences emerged from a chance encounter between three people in June
2006 at the Euroscience Open Forum in Munich. Rick Borchelt (Communications
Director, Genetics and Public Policy Center, Berman Bioethics Institute, USA)
gave a paper entitled ‘n arratives of humility’, inspired in part by a 2003 paper by
Sheila Jasanoff on technologies of humility (reprinted in this volume).
The above-mentioned skills, however, are necessary for the effective implementation of health
promotion programs in schools. This means that if the health promotion programs are to be
successful, its participants must not only carry out the programme itself, but also learn new general
skills in using effective strategies and programme management technologies.
We assume that the situation will change in the future, because a concept of the national educational
development programme (the so-called White Book) has been prepared since the second half of
With the adoption of these English–language arts
content standards in 1997, California set forth for the
first time a uniform and specific vision of what
students should know and be able to do in this subject
area. Reflecting a strong consensus among educators,
these standards establish high expectations for all
this book offers the first political theory of special-purpose jurisdictions,
including 35,000 special districts and 13,500 school districts, which consti-
tute the most common form of local government in the United States today.
collectively, special-purpose governments have more civilian employees than
the federal government and spend more than all city governments combined.
the proliferation of special-purpose jurisdictions has fundamentally altered
the nature of representation and taxation in local government.
Let me write Elderhostel on the board for you. Elderhostel. To date, hundreds of thousands of students from sixty to one hundred years old have participated in Elderhostel. Students usually live in dormitories, eat in cafeterias, and attend social, recreational, and cultural functions. All services available to students during the academic year are offered to Elderhostel students. Registration fees vary from as little as twenty dollars to as much as three hundred dollars, excluding books and transportation to the campus or community site.
The advent of the Internet, digital connectivity, the explosion and use of e -commerce and e-
business models in the private sector are pressuring the public sector to rethink hierarchical,
bureaucratic organizational models. Customers, citizens and businesses are faced every day
with new innovative e -business and e -commerce models implemented by the private sector
and made possible by ICT tools and applications, are requiring the same from governmental
In the countries where EIA is separated from development consent procedure, the Member States
concerned and their citizens can participate in the EIA itself, but not always in the subsequent
decision-making procedures. Furthermore, translation problems occur in many transboundary
procedures. Due to the complexity of EIA-procedures public authorities lack resources to translate
the full EIA-documentation, making public participation meaningless.
Public expenditure on health is financed mainly through a combination of
contributions and general tax revenue transfers to the health insurance scheme.
There has been increasing reliance on the latter in recent years.
Participation in the health insurance scheme is compulsory for all citizens
living in Hungary, and opting out is not permitted. Based on the current legal
framework, coverage should theoretically be 100%, but the health insurance
status of approximately 4% of the population is unclear. The benefits package
is comprehensive but not exhaustive.