Up to this point, you have been writing programs that did not use any of C++’s object-oriented
capabilities. Thus, the programs in the preceding modules reflected structured programming, not
object-oriented programming. To write object-oriented programs, you will need to use classes. The class
is C++’s basic unit of encapsulation. Classes are used to create objects. Classes and objects are so
fundamental to C++ that much of the remainder of this book is devoted to them in one way or another. ...
Visual Basic 2005 (VB 2005) is relatively easy to learn for anyone familiar with another
object-oriented language. Even someone familiar with Visual Basic 6.0, who is looking for
an object-oriented language, will find VB 2005 easy to pick up. However, though VB 2005,
coupled with .NET, provides a quick path for creating simple applications, you still must know
a wealth of information and understand how to use it correctly in order to produce sophisticated,
robust, fault-tolerant applications.
1. Data Structure 1.1 What is the data structure 1.2 Basic data structure 1.3 Problem-oriented data structure 2. Algorithm 2.1 Basic of Algorithm 2.2 Various algorithm 2.3 Evaluation of algorithm 2.4 How to design algorithm 3. Internal Design 3.1 What id internal design 3.2 Functional partitioning and structuring 3.3 Physical data design 3.4 Detailed input-output design 3.5 Creation and reuse of parts 3.6 Creating internal
Much social science research on child development has focused on the role
played by social class and socioeconomic factors like childhood poverty and
family income, low parent education, and the more limited opportunities and
negative influences faced by minority children. And indeed, the survey data show
that the developmental problems listed above are more common among children
from low-income families, families where parents have less than a high school
education, and Black and Hispanic families.
We propose a novel approach to constraint-based type inference
based on coinductive logic. Constraint generation corresponds to
translation into a conjunction of Horn clauses P, and constraint satisfaction
is defined in terms of the coinductive Herbrand model of P. We
illustrate the approach by formally defining this translation for a small
object-oriented language similar to Featherweight Java, where type annotations
in field and method declarations can be omitted.
Metallothionein-3, also called neuronal growth-inhibitory factor, is one of
the four members of the mammalian metallothionein family, which in turn
belongs to the metallothionein, a class of ubiquitously occurring low-molecular-weight cysteine- and metal-rich proteins containing metal–
Seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) is a class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
that catalyzes serine activation and its transfer to cognate tRNA
. Previ-ous biochemical and structural studies have revealed that bacterial- and
methanogenic-type SerRSs employ different strategies of substrate recogni-tion.
Some preliminary work has been done on subjects’
preference for different aesthetics in UML class and
collaboration diagrams (Purchase et al. 2000), revealing
that users preferred diagrams with fewer bends and
crosses, shorter edge lengths and an orthogonal structure.
However, that experiment only looked at subjects’
personal preference for the aesthetics, rather than their
performance on UML related tasks.
Finding a class of structures that is rich enough for adequate linguistic representation yet restricted enough for efﬁcient computational processing is an important problem for dependency parsing. In this paper, we present a transition system for 2-planar dependency trees – trees that can be decomposed into at most two planar graphs – and show that it can be used to implement a classiﬁer-based parser that runs in linear time and outperforms a stateof-the-art transition-based parser on four data sets from the CoNLL-X shared task. ...
The Java standard APIs are shown in HTML output at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/docs/api/index.html. It’s generated from the documentation comments (doc comments).
Documentation comments are special comments in the source code that are delimited by the /** ... */ delimiters.
The JDK contains a tool named javadoc to generate HTML documentation from documentation comments in your source file. The javadoc utility extracts information for the following items
Public classes and interfaces
Public and protected methods
Public and protected fields
Patent translation is a complex problem due to the highly specialized technical vocabulary and the peculiar textual structure of patent documents. In this paper we analyze patents along the orthogonal dimensions of topic and textual structure. We view different patent classes and different patent text sections such as title, abstract, and claims, as separate translation tasks, and investigate the inﬂuence of such tasks on machine translation performance.
Data abstraction refers to, providing only essential information to the outside word and hiding their background details ie. to represent the needed information in program without presenting the details. Data abstraction is a programming (and design) technique that relies on the separation of interface and implementation.
We consider the problem of optimal investment in a risky asset, and in
derivatives written on the price process of this asset, when the underlying asset
price process is a pure jump L´ evy process. The duality approach of Karatzas
and Shreve is used to derive the optimal consumption and investment plans. In
our economy, the optimal derivative payoff can be constructed from dynamic
trading in the risky asset and in European options of all strikes.
Graph-based semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms have been successfully used to extract class-instance pairs from large unstructured and structured text collections. However, a careful comparison of different graph-based SSL algorithms on that task has been lacking. We compare three graph-based SSL algorithms for class-instance acquisition on a variety of graphs constructed from different domains. We ﬁnd that the recently proposed MAD algorithm is the most effective.
We present parsing algorithms for various mildly non-projective dependency formalisms. In particular, algorithms are presented for: all well-nested structures of gap degree at most 1, with the same complexity as the best existing parsers for constituency formalisms of equivalent generative power; all well-nested structures with gap degree bounded by any constant k; and a new class of structures with gap degree up to k that includes some ill-nested structures. The third case includes all the gap degree k structures in a number of dependency treebanks. ...
The paper discusses a recent extension of the linguistic framework of the Rosetta system. The original framework is elegant and has proved its value in practice, but it also has a number of deficiencies, of which the most salient is the impossibility to assign an explicit structure to the grammars. This may cause problems, especially in a situation where large grammars have to be written by a group of people. The newly developed framework enables us to divide a grammar into subgrammars in a linguistically motivated way and to control explicitly the application of rules in a subgrammar. ...
The course focuses on strategies and techniques to efficiently store data (Data Structures) and to perform processing on such data in efficient ways (Algorithms), as well as on the analysis and design of such techniques. In this lecture, the following topics will be covered: Mathematical review; asymptotic and algorithm analysis; relationships and data structures; requential storage: Lists, queues, stacks, deques; hash tables; trees; priority queues and heaps; sort algorithms; graphs and graph algorithms; algorithm design techniques; complexity classes and NP completeness.
In this chapter we define a simple stack. The first version uses procedures and a structure, the second version uses a class. The class version of the stack is very similar to the procedure/structure version of the stack, except that the procedures (member functions) and structures are integrated. That means that you don’t have to pass the structure as the first parameter to each procedure.
After completing this unit, you should be able to: To form linked data structures using references, self-referential classes and recursion, the type-wrapper classes that enable programs to process primitive data values as objects, to use autoboxing to convert a primitive value to an object of the corresponding type-wrapper class, to use auto-unboxing to convert an object of a type-wrapper class to a primitive value.
This book is a review of the relationships between times and tenses in English. It is intended for beginning and intermediate level language students in non-English speaking countries, as a reinforcement and addition to their regular structure classes. The chapter dealing with each tense may be used as soon as the students have covered that tense in their formal grammar study.