(BQ) Part 1 book "Aortic stenosis - Case-Based diagnosis and therapy" presents the following contents: General considerations and etiologies of aortic stenosis, clinical assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis, physiological basis for area and gradient assessment - hemodynamic principles of aortic stenosis, different classifi cations of aortic stenosis, invasive evaluation of aortic stenosis, echocardiographic evaluation of aortic valve stenosi,...
Argumentation schemes are structures or templates for various kinds of arguments. Given the text of an argument with premises and conclusion identiﬁed, we classify it as an instance of one of ﬁve common schemes, using features speciﬁc to each scheme. We achieve accuracies of 63–91% in one-against-others classiﬁcation and 80–94% in pairwise classiﬁcation (baseline = 50% in both cases).
This paper describes a method for automatically extracting and classifying multiword expressions (MWEs) for Urdu on the basis of a relatively small unannotated corpus (around 8.12 million tokens). The MWEs are extracted by an unsupervised method and classiﬁed into two distinct classes, namely locations and person names. The classiﬁcation is based on simple heuristics that take the co-occurrence of MWEs with distinct postpositions into account.
Supervised polarity classiﬁcation systems are typically domain-speciﬁc. Building these systems involves the expensive process of annotating a large amount of data for each domain. A potential solution to this corpus annotation bottleneck is to build unsupervised polarity classiﬁcation systems. However, unsupervised learning of polarity is difﬁcult, owing in part to the prevalence of sentimentally ambiguous reviews, where reviewers discuss both the positive and negative aspects of a product. ...
Classifying text genres across languages can bring the beneﬁts of genre classiﬁcation to the target language without the costs of manual annotation. This article introduces the ﬁrst approach to this task, which exploits text features that can be considered stable genre predictors across languages. My experiments show this method to perform equally well or better than full text translation combined with monolingual classiﬁcation, while requiring fewer resources.
Previous work on classifying information status (Nissim, 2006; Rahman and Ng, 2011) is restricted to coarse-grained classiﬁcation and focuses on conversational dialogue. We here introduce the task of classifying ﬁnegrained information status and work on written text. We add a ﬁne-grained information status layer to the Wall Street Journal portion of the OntoNotes corpus.
We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of a Verbnet like classiﬁcation of French verbs which involves the use (i) of a neural clustering method which associates clusters with features, (ii) of several supervised and unsupervised evaluation metrics and (iii) of various existing syntactic and semantic lexical resources. We evaluate our approach on an established test set and show that it outperforms previous related work with an Fmeasure of 0.70.
We present an automatic approach to determining whether a pronoun in text refers to a preceding noun phrase or is instead nonreferential. We extract the surrounding textual context of the pronoun and gather, from a large corpus, the distribution of words that occur within that context. We learn to reliably classify these distributions as representing either referential or non-referential pronoun instances. Despite its simplicity, experimental results on classifying the English pronoun it show the system achieves the highest performance yet attained on this important task. i...
We report initial results on the relatively novel task of automatic classiﬁcation of author personality. Using a corpus of personal weblogs, or ‘blogs’, we investigate the accuracy that can be achieved when classifying authors on four important personality traits. We explore both binary and multiple classiﬁcation, using differing sets of n-gram features. Results are promising for all four traits examined.
A crucial step toward the goal of automatic extraction of propositional information from natural language text is the identiﬁcation of semantic relations between constituents in sentences. We examine the problem of distinguishing among seven relation types that can occur between the entities “treatment” and “disease” in bioscience text, and the problem of identifying such entities. We compare ﬁve generative graphical models and a neural network, using lexical, syntactic, and semantic features, ﬁnding that the latter help achieve high classiﬁcation accuracy. ...
Until recently, surgical resection was considered the only option for treatment of kidney
cancer, especially renal cell carcinoma. The disease is relatively resistant to both radiotherapy
and chemotherapy, and although alternative systemic therapies such as interleukin-
2 immunotherapy and interferon have shown promise, objective response rates are
still quite low. Minimally invasive therapies have piqued the interest of researchers by
showing significant improvements in treatment and management of kidney cancer.
The teaching of constitutional law in American law schools focuses
primarily—in fact, almost exclusively—on decisions rendered by the
United States Supreme Court interpreting the Federal Constitution. For
teachers of constitutional law who believe that equality and liberty are
quintessential to a free society, this has come to be a disheartening affair,
as the Supreme Court of the United States has become increasingly conservative
and antipathetic, if not hostile, to the recognition of individual
The purpose of this collection is to present some of the diversity of ideas
and studies about species that can be classifi ed as “ecosystem engineers.”
As with any developing concept, we fi nd disagreement about the
meaning and usefulness of this term in the literature and among ourselves.
The idea for the book arose in a National Center for Ecological
Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) working group designed to develop
models of ecosystem engineering species.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Histology a text and atlas - With correlated cell and molecular biology" presents the following contents: Methods, cell cytoplasm, the cell nucleus, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, tissues - concept and classifi cation, cartilage, bone, muscle tissue,...
Microbubble-based contrast agents for ultrasound were introduced some time ago,
although their clinical application has become widespread only in recent years. Since
color and power Doppler reveal overt artifacts after microbubble injection due to the
peculiar features of harmonic signals produced by insonation of microbubbles, dedicated
contrast-specifi c modes of US were introduced to optimize the registration of
We wrote this book to share with other ecologists what we have learned about the structure and
use of theory and its relationship to the myriad activities that constitute modern science. Our
own quest was motivated by the sometimes unclear way in which the term “theory” is used in
both scientifi c publications and informal discussions. We needed to fi nd out what theory was
and how it was built. We also wanted to evaluate the varied and often contradictory claims made
about what constitutes proper scientifi c practice.
Chapter 1 provides knowledge of the nature of law. After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the respective makers of the different types of law (constitutions, statutes, common law, and administrative regulations and decisions); identify the type of law that takes precedence when two types of law confl ict; explain the basic differences between the criminal law and civil law classifi cations; describe key ways in which the major schools of jurisprudence differ from each other.
Defi ning, gathering, and disseminating international statistics is a collective effort of many people and
organizations. The indicators presented in World Development Indicators are the fruit of decades of work
at many levels, from the fi eld workers who administer censuses and household surveys to the committees
and working parties of the national and international statistical agencies that develop the nomenclature,
classifi cations, and standards fundamental to an international statistical system.
Strains ofPseudomonas syringaepv. porri are characterized
by a number of pathovar-specific phenotypic and genomic
characters and constitute a highly homogeneous group.
Using monoclonal antibodies, they all were classified in a
novelP. syringaeserogroup O9. The O polysaccharides
(OPS) isolated from the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of