Clay minerals

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  • Clay and clay minerals represent the youngest minerals in the Earth’s crust. Clays are irregularly distributed in lithosphere, as their concentration increases due to the weathering, hydrothermal changes, including anthropogenic influences. Clay minerals occur in all types of sediments and sedimentary rocks and are common in hydrothermal deposits. The interdisciplinary character of clay science follows from the information obtained from the methodology and theory of other natural and technical sciences....

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  • Pha rắn của đất gồm nhiều thành phần có tỷ lệ thay đổi khác nhau như tinh thể sét và các khoáng phi sét (non-clay minerals), các loại đất sét phi tinh thể (vô định hình-noncrystalline), vật chất hữu cơ, và các loại muối kết tủa.

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  • Polymer nanocomposites are commonly defined as the combination of a polymer matrix and additives that have at least one dimension in the nanometer range. The additives can be one-dimensional (examples include nanotubes and fibres), two-dimensional (which include layered minerals like clay), or three- dimensional (including spherical particles). Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted considerable interests in both academia and industry, owing to their outstanding mechanical properties like elastic stiffness and strength with only a small amount of the nanoadditives.

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  • Beneficiation (or concentration) processes are gener- ally used to upgrade the phosphate content by removing contaminants and barren material prior to further processing. A few ores are of sufficiently high quality to require no further concentration. The natu- rally occurring impurities contained in phosphate rock ore depend heavily on the type of deposit (sedi- mentary or igneous), associated minerals, and the extent of weathering. Major impurities can include organic matter, clay and other fines, siliceous material, carbonates, and iron bearing minerals.

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  • Almost 4000 years ago Egyptians and Babylonians used aluminum compounds in various chemicals and medicines. Herodotus mentioned alum in the fifth century b.c. and Pliny referred to “alumen,” now known as alum, as a mordant to fix dyes to textiles around 80 a.d. In 1754 Marggraf showed that a distinct compound existed in both alum and clays. In 1761 the French chemist Guyton de Morveau proposed the name “alumine” for the base in alum, identified in 1787 by Antoine Lavosier as the oxide of a then-undiscovered element.

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  • The specific process employed will depend on factors such as the characteristics and constituents of the potash ore and the market specifications. Generally, the ore is reduced in size using a system of crushing and grinding to liberate the different miner- als from each other. This is usually followed by desliming by intense agitation followed by flotation or hydrocyclones to separate the fines consisting of clays, dolomite and sand from the potash ore.

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