Evidence grows daily of the rapid changes in climate due to human activities and
their impact on plants and animals. Plant function is inextricably linked to climate
and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. On the shortest and smallest scales
the climate affects the plant’s immediate environment and thus directly inﬂuences
physiological processes. On longer and larger time and space scales climate inﬂu-
ences species distribution and community composition and determines what crops
can be viably produced in managed agricultural, horticultural and forestry ecosys-
Global warming is the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C, with about two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels.
A heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is designed
to satisfy the environmental requirements of comfort or a process,
in a specific building or portion of a building and in a particular
geographic locale. Designers must understand a great deal beyond basic
HVAC system design and the outdoor climate. They must also understand
the process or the comfort requirements.
Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial
wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal
or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids.
This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved
in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater
This book provides an interdisciplinary view of how to prepare the ecological and socio-economic systems to the reality of climate change. Scientifically sound tools are needed to predict its effects on regional, rather than global, scales, as it is the level at which socio-economic plans are designed and natural ecosystem reacts. The first section of this book describes a series of methods and models to downscale the global predictions of climate change, estimate its effects on biophysical systems and monitor the changes as they occur....
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was carried out between 2001
and 2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being
and to establish the basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and
sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.
The present publication has been prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (Geneva,
September 2009) and the 15th
Conference of the Parties to the United Framework
Convention on Climate Change (COP-15, Copenhagen, December 2009). It provides an
overview of recently completed and ongoing climate research projects undertaken under the
Research Framework Programmes of the European Community.
Space research is one of the most evocative and challenging fields of human endeavour.
In the half-century that has elapsed since the beginning of the space age, we
have been exposed to wonders beyond the imagination of even the most visionary of
science fiction writers. We have peered deep into the Universe and studied physics
that we can never duplicate on the Earth. We have begun to understand our own
Sun, and the flow of energy outward through the Solar System that is fundamental
to our existence.
More and more evidence of global climate warming, sea level rise, droughts, floods and climate extremes are recorded. In Vietnam, the manifestation of climate change (CC) is often considered as changing the level and trend of variation of main climatic elements and sea level. However, Vietnam climate influenced by the characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the Earth climate system.
Cimate change is one of the most important global environmental
problems facing the world today. Evidence of a
changing climate is all around us, from rising sea level to
retreating mountain glaciers, melting Arctic sea ice, lengthening
growing seasons, shifting animal migration patterns, and other
changes. Such changes are already having adverse impacts on people’s
well-being, as climate change amplifies the effects of other
environmental and socioeconomic changes and problems and produces
new effects of its own.
This is the first of two reports that address the complex issue of incorporating the needs of climate research
into the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS, which has
been driven by the imperative of reliably providing short-term weather information, is itself a union of heretofore
separate civilian and military programs. It is a marriage of convenience to eliminate needless duplication and
reduce cost, one that appears to be working.
The Earth’s polar regions (see Figure 1.1) are ecologically, economically,
and, increasingly, geopolitically important; they are particularly
vulnerable to the speed and magnitude of climate change and
have significant potential to influence the global climate system (Oreskes,
2004; IPCC, 2007a; Anderegg et al., 2010). Climate models and observational
data have shown that polar regions have warmed at substantially
higher rates than the global mean (IPCC, 2007c).
Water-resource managers have long strived to meet their goals of system reliability and environmental protection in the face of many uncertainties, including demographic and economic forecasts, intrinsic weather variability, and short-term climate change induced by El Ni
The Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. The complex process of evolution occurred on Earth only because of some unique environmental conditions that were present: water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a suitable surface temperature. Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer).
This lecture introduces you to atmosphere, climate, ozone. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Layers of the atmosphere, composition of the troposphere, structure & temp of atmosphere, global warming, build up of greenhouse gases, nitrous oxides,...and other contents.
The Climate Bonds Initiative (“CBI” or “the Initiative”) is an investor-focused not-for-profit organisation, promoting
large-scale investments that will deliver a global low-carbon economy.
We seek to develop mechanisms to better align the interests of investors, industry and government so as to catalyse
investments at a speed and scale sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.
A key project is the Climate Bond International Standards and Certification Scheme (“Certification Scheme”).
This book is written with the objective of providing fundamental knowledge
concerning the biological and health effects of environmental pollutants on
living systems. The book emphasizes the chemical and biological characteristics
of major pollutants found in our environment and their impacts on the health
of living organisms, including not only humans and animals but also plants.