This book provides a general introduction to the popular topic of climate variability. It explores various aspects of climate variability and change from different perspectives, ranging from the basic nature of low-frequency atmospheric variability to the adaptation to climate variability and change. This easy and accessible book can be used by professionals and non professionals alike.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài: The effects of climatic variability on radial growth of two varieties of sand pine (Pinus clausa) in Florida, USA...
SWAT model was used to assess the impacts of climate change on the streamflow of Ben Hai River Basin. The daily streamflow for 1979 - 1996 and 1997 - 2006 was used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model, respectively. Nash efficiency values for the daily comparison were 0.72 for the calibration period and 0.74 for the validation period. Three scenarios were analyzed relative to the baseli ne with 28-year time series. A doubling of the atmospheric C02 content to 660 ppm (while holding other climatic variables) resulted in a 7.
Water-resource managers have long strived to meet their goals of system reliability and environmental protection in the face of many uncertainties, including demographic and economic forecasts, intrinsic weather variability, and short-term climate change induced by El Ni
The Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. The complex process of evolution occurred on Earth only because of some unique environmental conditions that were present: water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a suitable surface temperature. Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer).
This book represents recent research on tropical cyclones and their impact, and a wide range of topics are covered. An updated global climatology is presented, including the global occurrence of tropical cyclones and the terrestrial factors that may contribute to the variability and long-term trends in their occurrence. Research also examines long term trends in tropical cyclone occurrences and intensity as related to solar activity, while other research discusses the impact climate change may have on these storms....
Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere
as a result of human activities, causing surface air
temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise.
Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over
the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities,
but we cannot rule out that some significant part of
these changes is also a reflection of natural variability.
Human-induced warming and associated sea level rises are
expected to continue through the 21st century.
There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated
to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies,
the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global
warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs.
‘ Climate change ’  in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed
directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the
global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed
over comparable time periods....
Global change, including climate change, ecosystem shifts and biodiversity loss as a result
of explosive human population growth and consumption, is emerging as one of the most
important issues of our time (Vitousek, 1994). Climate change in particular appears to be
altering the function, structure and stability of the Earth’s ecosystems (Lovelock, 2009). It has
been marked by an 80% increase in atmospheric CO2 level and a 0.
Average depth model has a variety of applications in hydraulic engineering,
especially in applications that flow depth is much smaller than the width of the flow.
In this method the vertical variation is negligible and the hydraulic variables
average integrated from channel bed to the surface free for the vertical axis. in
equations arising management, pure hydrostatic pressure is assumed that
not really valid in the case of flow in the bed is curved and can not be described
curvature effects of the bed.
Climate dynamicists generally characterize the Hadley circulation in
terms of some derived meteorological parameters, such as the mass stream
function (the nondivergent part of the flow) or the velocity potential (the
divergent circulation), both of which are based on measurements of the
three-dimensional wind field. Yet, we know very little about how such indices
have varied in the past—beyond the most recent decades.
When planning how to reduce the threat of global warming and how to adapt to it, a
very important piece of information is how intense the change will be. That implies
estimating the trends of future concentrations of greenhouse gasses, and the potential
future changes in temperature, precipitation, storm events and other climatic
variables. These predictions are important not only to estimate the magnitude of the
changes, but also to determine the uncertainty surrounding them.
Genetic diversity is the fundamental source of biodiversity – the total number of genetic
characters contributing to variation within species. In other words it is the measure that
quantifies the variation found within a population of a given species. Genetic diversity
among individuals reflects the presence of different alleles in the gene pool, and hence
different genotypes within populations. Genetic diversity should be distinguished from
genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic traits found within populations
to vary (Laikre et al., 2009).
The evidence in this paper documents that the similarities between banks’ and non-
financial firms’ capital structure may be greater than previously thought. Specifically, this
paper establishes five novel and interrelated empirical facts.
First, standard cross-sectional determinants of firms’ capital structures also apply to
large, publicly traded banks in the US and Europe, except for banks close to the minimum