1979, WMO t ch c H i ngh Khổ ứ ộ ị í
hậu Thế Giới lần 1- Geneva, Thụy Sĩ.
1988, Thành lập Ủy Ban Liên Chính
Phủ về Biến đổi Khí hậu ( IPCC:
Intergovermental Panel on Climate
Change ) , với sự hổ trợ của WMO và
UNEP để định lượng dữ kiện khoa học
về biến đổi khí hậu
The idea for this book arose during the planning phases of an International Conference
in Edmonton, Canada in July 2004 entitled “The Science of Changing Climates
— Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands.” The conference was organized
jointly by the Canadian Societies of Animal Science, Plant Science and Soil Science
with support from Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service because they
saw climate change as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the
Evidence grows daily of the rapid changes in climate due to human activities and
their impact on plants and animals. Plant function is inextricably linked to climate
and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. On the shortest and smallest scales
the climate affects the plant’s immediate environment and thus directly inﬂuences
physiological processes. On longer and larger time and space scales climate inﬂu-
ences species distribution and community composition and determines what crops
can be viably produced in managed agricultural, horticultural and forestry ecosys-
The papers in this volume explore the key issues linked to this shift, including: ' Increasing research into the Earth Sciences, climate reconstruction and forecasting in order to decrease the degree of uncertainty about the origin, development and implications of climate change; ' The introduction of more binding and comprehensive regulation of both greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation measures, like that in the United Kingdom; ' Matching climate policy with that for disasters and mainstreaming it into overall development strategies.
This book provides an interdisciplinary view of how to prepare the ecological and socio-economic systems to the reality of climate change. Scientifically sound tools are needed to predict its effects on regional, rather than global, scales, as it is the level at which socio-economic plans are designed and natural ecosystem reacts. The first section of this book describes a series of methods and models to downscale the global predictions of climate change, estimate its effects on biophysical systems and monitor the changes as they occur....
Report by the Comm. on Climate and Tropical Forests, which was formed in 2009 to ensure effective protection of tropical forests primarily as part of U.S. climate change policies, but also through engagement in internat. agree. The intent has been to create actionable, politically viable recommend. that can inform and guide the U.S. in its legislative and diplomatic negotiations on this issue. Contents: Summary for Policy Makers; Climate Change and Tropical Forests; Financing Forest Emission Reductions; International Cooperation; Designing U.S.
The world’s climate is changing, and it will continue to change throughout the 21st century and beyond. Rising temperatures, new precipitation patterns, and other changes are already affecting many aspects of human society and the natural world. Climate change is transforming ecosystems at extraordinary rates and scales.
Information about climate1 is used to make decisions every day. From farmers deciding
which crops to plant next season to mayors in large cities deciding how to prepare for future heat
waves, and from an insurance company assessing future flood risks to a national security planner
assessing future conflict risks from the impacts of drought, users of climate information span a
vast array of sectors in both the public and private spheres. Each of these communities has
different needs for climate data, with different time horizons (see Box 1) and different tolerances
This book offers an interdisciplinary view of the biophysical issues related to climate change. Climate change is a phenomenon by which the long-term averages of weather events (i.e. temperature, precipitation, wind speed, etc.) that define the climate of a region are not constant but change over time. There have been a series of past periods of climatic change, registered in historical or paleoecological records.
Several years ago the Open University in Heerlen and Maastricht
University decided to launch a course on ‘Climate and the Environment’,
with a diverse team of authors. Both natural and social scientists, from
several regions of the world, contributed to this book. Initially, the book was
intended as a textbook within this course for students of Environmental
Sciences programmes at the Open University and Maastricht University. As
the book developed it became clear that it would be an excellent source to
anyone professionally engaged in the wide area of the enhance greenhouse
Climate change is a long-term shift in the statistics of the weather (including its
averages). For example, it could show up as a change in climate normalcy (expected
average values for temperature and precipitation) for a given place and time of year,
from one decade to the next. We know that the global climate is currently changing.
The last decade of the 20th Century and the beginning of the 21st have been the
warmest periods in the entire global instrumental temperature record, starting in the
Twenty years ago, world leaders gathered at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and signed the
first global agreement to tackle climate change. At the time, the impacts of climate change on
communities and economies were just beginning to be understood, and the role of the private
sector in responding to these challenges was only just emerging. But two decades later, climate
change is no longer a distant threat looming on the horizon; it has emerged as arguably the
greatest global challenge of our time.
Climate change is happening now. Climate-induced disasters are occurring
in the Asia Pacific region, where a distinctly increasing trend has been
observed in recent decades. This shows that the region is the most disaster
prone, compared with other parts of the world. Studies on the causes of
disaster in many affected regions suggest that in a typical disaster, cities with
high population density see increases in mortality and number of people
affected. Increased economic losses within the region are also inevitable.
Anomalous climatic outcomes such as higher temperatures, intense rainfall and flood, frequent and severe droughts are now at the new level. Without appropriate adaptation measures, climate change is bound to exacerbate vulnerability of society, place food security and human health at risk, threaten the lives of growing urban population and impede the goal of attaining sustainable development. The human and social dimensions of climate change, including climate policy, are essential parts of our response to the many challenges emanating from climate change....
This book provides a general introduction to the popular topic of climate variability. It explores various aspects of climate variability and change from different perspectives, ranging from the basic nature of low-frequency atmospheric variability to the adaptation to climate variability and change. This easy and accessible book can be used by professionals and non professionals alike.
Understanding the origins of humanity has long been one of our foremost
intellectual pursuits, and one that greatly interests the general public as
evidenced by museum attendance and by numerous media productions
and general interest publications. Progress toward an improved understanding
of our heritage is a continuing challenge for the scientific community, requiring
advances in a range of disciplines that include archaeology, anthropology, geology,
biology, oceanography, and genetics, and particularly research advances in
areas where two or more of these fields intersect.
‘Climate models’ is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small
sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes
descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an
international roster of authors.
The climate research community generally uses the rubric ‘climate models’ to refer to
organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution.
In the framework of the program "Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network" funded by Rockefeller Foundation, Vietnam Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environment carried out this study with the aim to strongly support the development of action plan to respond to climate change for Quy Nhon city. The study developed climate change (temperature and rainfall) and sea level rise scenarios corresponding to some key emission scenarios, namely A1FI, A2 and B2. Impacts of climate change on main sectors such as water resources, agriculture and tourism were also assessed.
Bonds will play a crucial role in financing the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. Investor interest in the asset class is growing, but what is the current investment opportunity already out there?
This report, commissioned by the HSBC Climate Change Centre of Excellence and prepared by the Climate Bonds Initiative, presents a first estimate of the outstanding global bond market size linked to key climate change themes, and examines future drivers and trends in the short term.