Professor D. R. Laurence was either author or coauthor
of this textbook from its 1st edition in 1960 to
its 8th in 1997. This is a long life for any textbook. Its
achievement bears testimony to a style of presentation
that strives to be clear and readable, and
to retain the reader's interest whilst imparting
information about a subject that can be at times
both complex and confusing.
Clinical pharmacology comprises all aspects of the scientific study of drugs in man. Its objective is to optimise drug therapy and it is justified in so far as it is of practical use.
Over recent years pharmacology has undergone great expansion resulting from technology that allows the understanding of molecular action and the capacity to exploit this. The potential consequences for therapeutics are enormous. All cellular mechanisms (normal and pathological), in their immense complexity are, in principle, identifiable.
The principally pharmacological aspects of vitamins are described here.The nutritional aspects, physiological function, sources, daily requirements and deficiency syndromes (primary and secondary) are to be found in any textbook of medicine. • • • • Vitamin A: retinol Vitamin B: complex Vitamin C: ascorbic acid Vitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, bone • Treatment of calcium and bone disorders • Vitamin E:tocopherol
that subclinical vitamin deficiencies are a cause of much chronic ill-health and liability to infections.
A third of all general practice consultations are for musculoskeletal complaints. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used, and their gastrointestinal effects account for an estimated 1200 deaths per year in the UK. A hitherto unsuspected inflammatory component is now known to accompany conditions such as atherosclerosis. As understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the inflammatory process increases, new ways of influencing it are developed, as witness therapies directed against specific cytokines, and COX-2 specific NSAIDs (COXIBs). ...
Psychiatrists and diverse other mental health and broader healthcare professionals
are faced with many challenges in effectively evaluating and treating
persons with psychiatric illnesses and substance use disorders. Resources are
often stretched thin, especially for those with the most serious and disabling
conditions, and many people who would benefit from treatment are untreated,
undertreated, or treated only after extended delays for complex reasons.
Clinicians clearly have difficulties and barriers in their efforts to provide
comprehensive, efficacious, and timely treatment.
The reality is more complex since the receptor binding profile of clozapine and the newer atypical antipsychotic agents suggests that D2-receptor blockade is not essential for antipsychotic effect. The atypical drugs act on numerous receptors and modulate several interacting transmitter systems. Clozapine is a highly effective antipsychotic. It has little affinity for the D2-receptor compared with classical drugs but binds more avidly to other dopamine subtypes (e.g. D1, D3 and D4). It blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as do certain classical agents (e.g.
The pathophysiology of cardiac arrhythmias is complex and the actions of drugs that are useful in stopping or controlling them may seem equally so. Nevertheless many patients with arrhythmias respond well to therapy with drugs and a working knowledge of their effects and indications pays dividends, for irregularity of the heart-beat is at least inconvenient and at worst fatal.The mechanisms by which the failing heart may be sustained are now better understood; carefully selected and monitored drugs can have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in this condition.
Statistical Prediction Models
Bayes' theorem, as presented above, deals with a clinical prediction problem that is unrealistically simple relative to most problems a clinician faces. Prediction models, based on multivariable statistical models, can handle much more complex problems and substantially enhance predictive accuracy for specific situations. Their particular advantage is the ability to take into account many overlapping pieces of information and assign a relative weight to each based on its unique contribution to the prediction in question.
Esthetics (also spelled aesthetics) is a subdiscipline
of value theory or axiology, which is a branch of philosophy
that studies sensory values, sometimes called
judgments of sentiment or taste. Esthetics is closely associated
with the philosophy of High Art. Esthetics
includes art as well as the very purpose behind it. Esthetics
as a branch of philosophy studies art, the methods of
evaluating art, and judgments of art. Art has existed
through all recorded human history. Art is unique to
human beings because of our innate ability to abstract.
This book examines how professionals practising in various health and welfare
settings go about the ordinary, but complicated, business of making sense
of the symptoms and troubles with which their patients or clients present.
Our motivations for writing the book are varied, but are the result of our
conversations with each other about the problem of judgement in clinical
practice, which have taken place over many years of professional, academic
and research collaboration.
Understanding the rapid changes in the evaluation and management of peripheral neuropathies, as well as the complexity of their mechanism, is a mandatory requirement for the practitioner to optimize patient's care. The objective of this book is to update health care professionals on recent advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of peripheral neuropathy. This work was written by a group of clinicians and scientists with large expertise in the field.
Increasing diversity in the U.S. population has sharpened concerns
about the vitality and diversity of the clinical research workforce, concerns that
have persisted for two decades. Our nation’s unprecedented level of investment
in biomedical research has led to an explosion of new knowledge
about human health and disease, but basic research achievements must be
translated into treatments and therapies in order to benefit human health.
Health care in America presents a fundamental paradox. The past 50 years have seen an
explosion in biomedical knowledge, dramatic innovation in therapies and surgical procedures,
and management of conditions that previously were fatal, with ever more exciting clinical
capabilities on the horizon. Yet, American health care is falling short on basic dimensions of
quality, outcomes, costs, and equity.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Clinical electrophysiology review" presents the following contents: Analysis of complex electrophysiologic data, electrophysiologic approach to the ECG, fundamentals of clinical electrophysiology.
Chapter 23 - Organization of the body. The human body is complex in its structure and function. This chapter provides an overview of the human body. It introduces you to the way the body is organized from the chemical level all the way up to the organ system level. You will also learn important terminology used in the clinical setting to describe body positions and parts. This chapter also focuses on how diseases develop at the genetic level.
Chapter 27 - The nervous system. The nervous system is a highly complex system. It controls all other organ systems and is important for maintaining balance within those systems. Disorders of the nervous system are numerous and often very difficult to diagnose and treat because of the complexity of this system.
After you have mastered the material in this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the importance of understanding both anatomy and physiology when studying the body; illustrate body organization from simple to more complex levels; describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types; describe the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each;...
Gynaecology outpatients are a complex clinical area that requires team working
across many professional and non-professional groups. We have combined as a
team of a consultant gynaecologist, consultant nurse and service manager to
write this book in an attempt to cover the processes that have to take place in
order for a patient to be seen and treated appropriately. It includes chapters on
the organization and problems undertaken by the clerical and secretarial staff
often behind the scenes.
Chapter 19 - Organization of the body. In this chapter, you will learn: Describe body organization from simple to more complex levels; list the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each; define the anatomical position and explain its importance; use medical and anatomical terminology correctly;...