Clinical levels

Xem 1-20 trên 214 kết quả Clinical levels
  • Clinical Implications of Drug Distribution Digoxin accesses its cardiac site of action slowly, over a distribution phase of several hours. Thus, after an intravenous dose, plasma levels fall, but those at the site of action increase over hours. Only when distribution is near-complete does the concentration of digoxin in plasma reflect pharmacologic effect. For this reason, there should be a 6–8 h wait after administration before plasma levels of digoxin are measured as a guide to therapy.

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  • Principles of Genetic Variation and Human Traits (See also Chaps. 62 and 64) Variants in the human genome resulting in variation in level of expression or function of molecules important for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are increasingly recognized. These may be mutations (very rare variants, often associated with disease) or polymorphisms, variants that are much more common in a population. Variants may occur at a single nucleotide [known as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] or involve insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides.

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  • Renal Disease Renal excretion of parent drug and metabolites is generally accomplished by glomerular filtration and by specific drug transporters, only now being identified. If a drug or its metabolites are primarily excreted through the kidneys and increased drug levels are associated with adverse effects, drug dosages must be reduced in patients with renal dysfunction to avoid toxicity. The antiarrhythmics dofetilide and sotalol undergo predominant renal excretion and carry a risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmias if doses are not reduced in renal disease.

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  • This book contains twenty client profiles to use in practicing interviewing and diagnostic skills. Ten profiles are of adult cases ranging in age from eighteen to seventy (chapters 3-12). Ten profiles are of child or teen cases ranging in age from seven to seventeen (chapters 13-22). In addition to age, the twenty profiles vary in terms of ethnicity, gender, national origin, religion, socioeconomic status, presenting problems, and level of problem severity. The instructor can have students simply read through these profiles and then complete the three sets of exercises that follow them.

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  • Spinal fusion remains at the center of many reconstructive procedures of the spine. However, several new concepts have recently emerged, which led many spine surgeons to rethink traditional approaches to common clinical problems.

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  • Increasing diversity in the U.S. population has sharpened concerns about the vitality and diversity of the clinical research workforce, concerns that have persisted for two decades. Our nation’s unprecedented level of investment in biomedical research has led to an explosion of new knowledge about human health and disease, but basic research achievements must be translated into treatments and therapies in order to benefit human health.

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  • The aim of this chapter is to summarize and evaluate the different mechanisms and catabolic mediators involved in cancer cachexia and ageing sarcopenia since they may represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. In fact, many patients who die with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis.

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  • Several new aspects have been highlighted: for example, a novel role for lipids as receptors which drive protein sorting, the diversity of the sorting events that occur at the level of the Golgi apparatus, and the cross talk between exocytosis and autophagy. Moreover, an interesting example of how the knowledge of these pathways is exploited to generate novel secretory routes to direct the synthesis of bio-molecules in “cell factories” is discussed.

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  • he 2004-05 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey is the most recent in a series of national surveys conducted in Tanzania to meas- - ure levels, patterns, and trends in fertility, family planning, and health indicators. he previous surveys were carried out in 1991-92, 1994, 1996, and 1999. he 2004-05 TDHS was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). he 2004-05 survey included a nationally representative sample of 10,329 women and 2,635 men from approximately 9,700 households.

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  • The head and neck is a region of considerable anatomical and functional complexity, making the accurate staging of a head and neck neoplasm a challenging task. The clinician often detects pathology, but may not appreciate, based on the physical examination, the entire submucosal tumor extension, nor the possible regional and distant disease spread. The introduction of CT and MRI has revolutionized head and neck radiology. Current radiological modalities provide a reliable visualization of the head and neck structures to an unprecedented level of detail.

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  • The veterinary sector has witnessed considerable change in recent years, and this has had a significant impact on the wider veterinary business landscape. Most noteworthy, perhaps, has been the change at the global level in the focus of animal welfare, with a growth in small/companion animal care and a reduction in large animal work (Lowe, 2009). This has resulted in increased competition amongst veterinary practices and the recognition that veterinary services need to be appropriately marketed.

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  • For the analysis of biological samples two blood samples were taken, one with 5 ml heparin for the determination of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and pseudo cholinesterase (PChE) by the technique of Michel and Aldrige (Vorhaus and Kark, 1953) and another of 5 ml without anticoagulant for the analysis of OC pesticides in serum.

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  • Our study shows that, in spite of a gradual decrease, the incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis in immigrants remain high even a decade after immigration. The persistent high incidence rates are consistent with results of previous studies (2–5). Our study combines data on all immigrant patients in whom tuberculosis was detected and all legal immigrants present in a 5-year period in a low incidence country, enabling detailed analysis with a long follow-up period. We did not find a steep decline in incidence rates after immigration.

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  • The guidelines provide a framework of approaches and tools that can be applied in different degrees of depth and breath, according to the level of resources and capacities of each city. Therefore, they provide a useful reference for any city, regardless of its size or level of devel- opment.

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  • The currently available treatment options for glomerular disorders are not optimal since most of them either respond only partially or poorly so that relapse and progression is often the rule. Inadequate understanding of the factors underlying the development and progression of glomerular injury in various clinical scenarios is primarily responsible for lack of ideal therapies. The section on immune system and glomerulonephritis has three chapters which basically cover some of the actively investigated areas. Tetsuhiro Tanaka et al.

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  • ARPA and the 2008 farm bill set premium subsidy rates, that is, the percentage of the premium paid by the government. Premium subsidy rates vary by the level of insurance coverage that the farmer chooses and the geographic diversity of the crops insured. For most policies, the statutory subsidy rates range from 38 percent to 80 percent. Table 1 shows the total costs of subsidies for all crop insurance premiums and administrative expenses for 2000 through 2011.

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  • In addition McQueen and Vorkink (2004) are able to reproduce GARCH volatility using a preference-based model with time-varying sensitivity to news. In a related paper, Vanden (2005) develops a model where the representative agent exhibits a utility function with several risk aversion regimes, which in equilibrium leads to volatility regimes and volatility clustering.

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  • While macro-level data display these relationships very clearly, micro-level data—especially in India—suggest more caution in attributing the differences in health and fertility behaviour of young women directly to their schooling, or to the autonomy of young women.

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  • To improve their influence on SRH legislation, policy and spending decisions at all levels, it is necessary to strengthen the capacity of marginalised people and of other civil society organisations concerned with SRH including women’s groups, health and human rights groups and elected representatives so they can better negotiate for their demands. Civil society groups should collect evidence to support these demands, support marginalised people to express their concerns, and form alliances to strengthen their representation.

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  • The general picture is that older people of today are healthier than older people of two decades ago. There have been improvements in most dimensions of health. People live longer and have fewer disabilities, have less functioning loss, and report themselves to be in better health. Over time there has been some reduction in risk from smoking and a lowering of cholesterol and average triglyceride levels. However, weight increase has been notable during this period.

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