Clinical methods

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  • Physiology plays a major role in the scientific foundation of medicine and other subjects related to human health and physical performance. Pharmacology is the science which deals with the effects of drugs on living systems and their use in the treatment of disease. This book is designed to enhance students’ understanding of physiology and pharmacology via a series of case studies involving human disease and its treatment. Traditional university teaching methods focus on informing students in terms of physiological and pharmacological theory.

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  • The clinical and basic science of allergic disease is moving and evolving so rapidly that it is nearly impossible to keep up full of information regarding the news mechanisms, signalling cell markers, cellular plasticity and expression, biological mediators targets or molecular and genetic discovers aspects related to the allergy. Moreover the systemic impact of this pathology determines the complexity of the more recent evidence demonstrates that the rapid regulation of central immune organs in clinical response of the mucosa to the allergen or offending agent.

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  • The rate of technological progress is encouraging increasingly sophisticated lines of enquiry in cognitive neuroscience and shows no sign of slowing down in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that even the strongest advocates of the cognitive neuroscience approach would maintain that advances in cognitive theory have kept in step with methods-based developments. There are several candidate reasons for the failure of neuroimaging studies to convincingly resolve many of the most important theoretical debates in the literature.

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  • The first edition of this text was written in the early 1990s. Since then, the field of clinical research methods has continued to develop rapidly, and this second edition has been extensively updated to reflect these developments. We have also tried to make the whole book more user friendly, both in layout and in content. All chapters now have summaries and boxes highlighting the key points, and we have provided many more illustrative examples. The biggest area of change is in our treatment of qualitative methods.

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  • Esthetics (also spelled aesthetics) is a subdiscipline of value theory or axiology, which is a branch of philosophy that studies sensory values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment or taste. Esthetics is closely associated with the philosophy of High Art. Esthetics includes art as well as the very purpose behind it. Esthetics as a branch of philosophy studies art, the methods of evaluating art, and judgments of art. Art has existed through all recorded human history. Art is unique to human beings because of our innate ability to abstract.

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  • The development of Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology is the result of our experiences teaching and working with students in professional psychology over many years. Although virtually all graduate programs require a course on research, the basis for that requirement is often shrouded in mystery for many students. Students enter their graduate training with the admirable ambition of learning skills important for assisting clients to make changes.

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  • The study of the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections encompasses many different disciplines, including clinical microbiology, diagnostics, animal ecology, and food safety, as well as the cellular microbiology of both bacterial pathogenesis and the mechanisms of toxin action. E. coli: Shiga Toxin Methods and Protocols aims to bring together a number of experts from each of these varied fields in order to outline some of the basic protocols for the diagnosis and study of STEC pathogenesis.

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  • Most methods for data analysis were derived from the plasma radioactivity curve and were based on the general assumptions that synthesis and catabolism took place in a compartment in close contact with the intravascular space, that the study subjects were in steady state concerning IgG metabolism, and that metabolism of the labeled protein was identical with that of the native unlabeled protein (1). Figure 2a shows a semilogarithmic plot of the time-dependent decline of 125I-labeled IgG representing the disappearance of the tracer from the plasma in a normal subject.

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  • The main method of cognition of the performance of biological systems is their mathematical modeling. The essence of this method should reflect the principle of optimization in biology[9]. Any biosystem cannot function if its energy consumption is inadequately high. The same is applicable to the blood circulatory system. Its main function is to transport blood throughout the body in order to maintain the proper gaseous exchange, deliver important substances to viscera and tissues in living body and remove decay products.

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  • Uterine myomas are the most common benign tumors in women, affecting 20%–50% of reproductive age population. Myomas cause significant morbidity and are the single most common indication for hysterectomy in the United States, representing a major personal and public health concern worldwide. Recent research on the cellular and molecular biology of myomas has enabled us to understand better the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this tumor, but more remains to be done.

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  • The vast majority of published cytogenetic studies of malignancy have been of leukemias and related hematologic disorders (see Fig. 1), even though these constitute only about 20% of all cancers. It follows that most of what is known about the clinical applications of cytogenetic studies has been derived from hematologic malignancies.

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  • Clinical trials enable scientific discoveries to advance patient care, and they also inform and guide subsequent research. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports the largest U.S. network of clinical trials of any type, of which the largest component is the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program (informally known as the Cooperative Group Program). It currently comprises 10 Groups that involve more than 3,100 institutions and 14,000 investigators who enroll more than 25,000 patients in clinical trials each year.

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  • Medical ultrasound imaging is a technique that has become much more prevalent than other medical imaging techniques since it is more accessible, less expensive, safe, simpler to use and produces images in the real time. However, images produced by an ultrasound imaging system, must be of sufficient quality to provide accurate clinical interpretation.

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  • There is a need for development of new diagnostic tools to allow earlier detection of active disease, predict disease progression and evaluate the response to periodontal therapy, thereby improving the clinical management of patients with periodontal diseases. Advances in periodontal diseases diagnostic research are moving toward methods whereby periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by objective measures such as biomarkers.

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  • A major challenge in clinical periodontics is to find a reliable molecular marker of periodontal support loss with high sensitivity, specificity and utility (Buduneli & Kinane 2011). Molecules derived from inflamed host tissue and pathogenic bacteria have the potential of being used as markers of periodontitis; however, molecular markers of bone resorption have advantages as they relate to specificity for bone, easy detection, pre-analytic stability and availability of sensitive and specific assays for detection (Forde et al. 2006).

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  • This chapter will provide an overview of the literature on depression and anxiety during pregnancy, including prevalence of symptoms and syndromes, studies on the impact of depression, anxiety, and stress on birth outcomes and child development, the mechanisms by which these effects may operate, approaches to treatment of anxiety and depression during pregnancy, and the evidence available on the efficacy of these treatments. Implications for health and public policy, clinical treatment, and research will be discussed....

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  • Thus, despite the value of these clinical methods, such techniques often result in inconsistent diagnoses, as well as an inability to reliably predict a patient´s response to treatment (Offenbacher et al. 2007). A reason for the limited success in predicting the future course of disease in some individuals is that the clinical phenotype does not reflect the underlying biologic processes that occur at the biofilm-gingival interface (Offenbacher et al. 2007).

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  • Modern neuroimaging tools allow unprecedented opportunities for understanding brain neuroanatomy and function in health and disease. Each available technique carries with it a particular balance of strengths and limitations, such that converging evidence based on multiple methods provides the most powerful approach for advancing our knowledge in the fields of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. In addition to offering fine-grained in-vivo neuroanatomical specification, neuroimaging methods also provide the opportunity to non-invasively explore brain function.

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  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the leading cross-sectional imaging method in clinical practice. Since the 1980s, continuous improvements in hardware and software have significantly broadened the scope of applications. At present, MR imaging is not only the most important technique in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal radiology, but has also become an invaluable diagnostic tool for abdominal, pelvic, cardiac, breast and vascular imaging.

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  • These CNVs may show association with certain clinical conditions and help in predicting risk and also diagnosis. All these approaches have their merits and demerits and in general are tedious, time consuming and need manpower with stringent handling. This naturally prompted the development of several automated methods for culturing cells in mass scale, use of membrane bioreactors, and image analysis for interpreting the cytogenetic observations made.

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