Clinical pharmacokinetics

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  • Five years have passed since the first edition of Principles of Clinical Pharmacology was published. The second edition remains focused on the principles underlying the clinical use and contemporary development of pharmaceuticals. However, recent advances in the areas of pharmacogenetics, membrane transport, and biotechnology and in our understanding of the pathways of drug metabolism, mechanisms of enzyme induction, and adverse drug reactions have warranted the preparation of this new edition.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế về bệnh thú y đề tài: Clinical pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin-glycine acetate after intravenous and oral administration in pigs

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  • This account is confined to therapy directed primarily at the skin. • Pharmacokinetics of the skin • Topical preparations:Vehicles for presenting drugs to the skin; Emollients, barrier preparations and dusting powders;Topical analgesics; Antipruritics; Adrenocortical steroids; Sunscreens • Cutaneous adverse drug reactions • Individual disorders: Psoriasis.Acne, Urticaria, Skin infections It is easy to do more harm than good with potent drugs, and this is particularly true in skin diseases.

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  • Adrenocortical steroids and their synthetic analogues Mechanisms of action Actions: mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid Individual adrenal steroids Pharmacokinetics Dosage schedules Choice of adrenal steroid Adverse effects of systemic pharmacotherapy Adrenal steroids and pregnancy Precautions during chronic therapy: treatment of intercurrent illness Dosage and routes of administration Indications for use Uses: replacement therapy, pharmacotherapy Withdrawal of pharmacotherapy . Inhibition of synthesis of adrenal steroids. Competitive antagonism .

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  • Principles of Pharmacokinetics The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion— collectively termed drug disposition—determine the concentration of drug delivered to target effector molecules. Absorption Bioavailability When a drug is administered orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, rectally, sublingually, or directly into desired sites of action, the amount of drug actually entering the systemic circulation may be less than with the intravenous route (Fig. 5-2A ).

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  • Principles of Genetic Variation and Human Traits (See also Chaps. 62 and 64) Variants in the human genome resulting in variation in level of expression or function of molecules important for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are increasingly recognized. These may be mutations (very rare variants, often associated with disease) or polymorphisms, variants that are much more common in a population. Variants may occur at a single nucleotide [known as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] or involve insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides.

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  • Since publication of the first edition of CRC Desk Reference of Clinical Pharmacology in 1998, dramatic discoveries in molecular medicine, along with rapid concomitant technological advances, have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of a broad range of human diseases with new medications. Given the rapid pace of new discovery, genetic- and cell-based therapeutics have now become a common part of the physicians’ armamentarium. A few examples will be given concerning two leading causes of death—cancer and cardiovascular diseases—to illustrate this....

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  • Pharmacokinetic Interactions Causing Decreased Drug Effects Gastrointestinal absorption can be reduced if a drug interaction results in drug binding in the gut, as with aluminum-containing antacids, kaolin-pectin suspensions, or bile acid sequestrants. Drugs such as histamine H 2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors that alter gastric pH may decrease the solubility and hence absorption of weak bases such as ketoconazole.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Rapid clinical pharmacology - A student formulary" presents the following contents: Basic pharmacokinetic concepts gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, central nervous system.

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  • Understanding the basics of pharmacology is an essential nursing responsibility. Pharmacology is the science that deals with the physical and chemical properties, and biochemical and physiologic effects, of drugs. It includes the areas of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacognosy, and toxicodynamics.

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  • Despite massive efforts in drug discovery fueled by combinatory chemistry, recombinant DNA technology, and highthroughput screening, surprisingly few molecules make it through the drug development process. While the reasons are debated, it is certain that many new chemical entities (NCEs) suffer from recurring problems that hinder development— low water solubility, instability, or inadequate pharmacokinetics. An estimated 43% of NCEs are poorly water-soluble.

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  • Most books about drugs fall into one of two categories— they either focus on basic pharmacology, rich with information about pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, or they address pharmacotherapeutics with an emphasis on conditions and indicated treatments. Th e former provides in-depth information that, unfortunately, is often detached from actual practice, making it diffi cult for a reader to retain and later use.

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  • The subspecialty of population pharmacokinetics was introduced into clinical pharmacology / pharmacy in the late 1970s as a method for analyzing observational data collected during patient drug therapy in order to estimate patient-based pharmacokinetic parameters. It later became the basis for dosage individualization and rational pharmacotherapy. The population pharmacokinetics method (i.e., the population approach) was later extended to the characterization of the relationship between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and into the discipline of pharmacometrics.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Safety and pharmacokinetics of recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (rh-HGF) in patients with fulminant hepatitis: a phase I/II clinical trial, following preclinical studies to ensure safety

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Steady-state mycophenolate mofetil pharmacokinetic parameters enable prediction of systemic lupus erythematosus clinical flares: an observational cohort study...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Correction: Steady-state mycophenolate mofetil pharmacokinetic parameters enable prediction of systemic lupus erythematosus clinical flares: an observational cohort study...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học đề tài : Safety and pharmacokinetics of recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (rh-HGF) in patients with fulminant hepatitis: a phase I/II clinical trial, following preclinical studies to ensure safety

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  • Great efficiencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identification, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.

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  • The modern drug discovery process, in general, involves the identification of a biochemical target (usually protein target), screening of synthetic compounds or compound libraries from combinatorial chemistry/natural sources for a lead compound, and optimization of the lead compound (activity, selectivity, pharmacokinetics, etc.) for recommending a potential clinical candidate.

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  • Recent advances in mass spectrometry have rendered it an attractive and versatile tool in industrial and academic research laboratories. As a part of this rapid growth, a considerable body of literature has been devoted to the application of mass spectrometry in clinical studies. In concert with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry allows the rapid characterization and quantitative determination of a large array of molecules in complex mixtures.

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