Clinical pharmacology

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  • Clinical pharmacology comprises all aspects of the scientific study of drugs in man. Its objective is to optimise drug therapy and it is justified in so far as it is of practical use. Over recent years pharmacology has undergone great expansion resulting from technology that allows the understanding of molecular action and the capacity to exploit this. The potential consequences for therapeutics are enormous. All cellular mechanisms (normal and pathological), in their immense complexity are, in principle, identifiable.

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  • Five years have passed since the first edition of Principles of Clinical Pharmacology was published. The second edition remains focused on the principles underlying the clinical use and contemporary development of pharmaceuticals. However, recent advances in the areas of pharmacogenetics, membrane transport, and biotechnology and in our understanding of the pathways of drug metabolism, mechanisms of enzyme induction, and adverse drug reactions have warranted the preparation of this new edition.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 5. Principles of Clinical Pharmacology Principles of Clinical Pharmacology: Introduction Drugs are the cornerstone of modern therapeutics. Nevertheless, it is well recognized among physicians and among the lay community that the outcome of drug therapy varies widely among individuals. While this variability has been perceived as an unpredictable, and therefore inevitable, accompaniment of drug therapy, this is not the case.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Rapid clinical pharmacology - A student formulary" presents the following contents: Infections, endocrine system, obstetrics, gynaecology and urinary tract disorders, malignant disease and immunosuppression, musculoskeletal and joint diseases, eye, anaesthesia, intravenous fluids,...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Rapid clinical pharmacology - A student formulary" presents the following contents: Basic pharmacokinetic concepts gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, central nervous system.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Basic and clinical pharmacology" presents the following contents: Basic principles, autonomic drugs, cardiovascular renal drugs, drugs with important actions on smooth muscle, drugs that act in the central nervous system.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Basic and clinical pharmacology" presents the following contents: Drugs used to treat diseases of the blood, inflammation and gout, endocrine drugs, chemotherapeutic drugs, toxicology, special topics.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "The hands-on guide to clinical pharmacology" presents the following contents: Central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, abbreviations.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "The hands-on guide to clinical pharmacology" presents the following contents: Musculoskeletal system, endocrine system, skin, pain management, infection, immunisation, obstetrics and gynaecology, anaesthesia, poisoning and overdose, mnemonics.

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  • Professor D. R. Laurence was either author or coauthor of this textbook from its 1st edition in 1960 to its 8th in 1997. This is a long life for any textbook. Its achievement bears testimony to a style of presentation that strives to be clear and readable, and to retain the reader's interest whilst imparting information about a subject that can be at times both complex and confusing.

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  • PRESCRIBING, CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMICS Prescribing, consumption and economics The reasons for taking a drug history from patients are: • Drugs are a cause of disease. Withdrawal of drugs, if abrupt, can cause disease, e.g. benzodiazepines, antiepilepsy drugs. • Drugs can conceal disease, e.g. adrenal steroid. • Drugs can interact causing positive adverse effect, or negative adverse effect, i.e. therapeutic failure. • Drugs can give diagnostic clues, e.g. ampicillin and amoxicillin causing rash in infectious mononucleosis — a diagnostic adverse effect, not a diagnostic test.

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  • We must be daring and search after Truth; even if we do not succeed in finding her, we shall at least come closer than we are at present (Galen AD 130-200) SYNOPSIS (CONTINUED) Surveillance studies and the reporting of spontaneous adverse reactions respectively determine the clinical profile of the drug and detect rare adverse events. Further trials to compare new medicines with existing medicines are also required.These form the basis of cost-effectiveness comparisons.

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  • The nonmedical use of drugs presents social problems with important pharmacological aspects. Social aspects Rewards for the individual Decriminalisation and legalisation Dependence Drugs and sport Tobacco Dependence Nicotine pharmacology Effects of chronic smoking Starting and stopping use Passive smoking Ethyl alcohol Pharmacology Car driving and alcohol Chronic consumption Withdrawal Pregnancy Pharmacological deterrence Psychodysleptics • Experiences with psychodysleptics • Individual substances, especially cannabis Stimulants • cocaine, • amfetamines.

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  • The eleventh edition of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology is a new book in two important ways. First, the addition of new Associate Editors to the editorial group has increased currency, depth, and breadth of coverage; second, conversion to fullcolor style has increased the clarity of presentation and total information content. At the same time, the overall organization has been improved and the educational content of previous editions has been expanded.

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  • The principally pharmacological aspects of vitamins are described here.The nutritional aspects, physiological function, sources, daily requirements and deficiency syndromes (primary and secondary) are to be found in any textbook of medicine. • • • • Vitamin A: retinol Vitamin B: complex Vitamin C: ascorbic acid Vitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, bone • Treatment of calcium and bone disorders • Vitamin E:tocopherol that subclinical vitamin deficiencies are a cause of much chronic ill-health and liability to infections.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'clinical pharmacology - part 1', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The administration of general anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking drugs is generally confined to trained specialists. Nevertheless, nonspecialists are involved in perioperative care and will benefit from an understanding of how these drugs act. Doctors from a variety of specialties use local anaesthetics and the pharmacology of these drugs is discussed in detail.

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  • Hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD) are of great importance. Hypertension affects above 20% of the total population of the USA with its major impact on those over age 50. CHD is the cause of death in 30% of males and 22% of females in England and Wales. Management requires attention to detail, both clinical and pharmacological. The way drugs act in these diseases is outlined and the drugs are described according to class.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'clinical pharmacology - part 2 (end)', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Clinical Implications of Altered Bioavailability Some drugs undergo near-complete presystemic metabolism and thus cannot be administered orally. Nitroglycerin cannot be used orally because it is completely extracted prior to reaching the systemic circulation. The drug is therefore used by the sublingual or transdermal routes, which bypass presystemic metabolism. Some drugs with very extensive presystemic metabolism can still be administered by the oral route, using much higher doses than those required intravenously.

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