Clinical questions

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  • This paper presents a hybrid approach to question answering in the clinical domain that combines techniques from summarization and information retrieval. We tackle a frequently-occurring class of questions that takes the form “What is the best drug treatment for X?” Starting from an initial set of MEDLINE citations, our system first identifies the drugs under study. Abstracts are then clustered using semantic classes from the UMLS ontology. Finally, a short extractive summary is generated for each abstract to populate the clusters. ...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question...

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  • Since the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989, there has been an explosion of research and information on the virus. This is evidenced by the more than 20 000 papers onHCV(as of December, 2000), as well as the numerous reviews in journals and edited books. The purpose of this book is to present an overview of the diVerent disciplines that have contributed to an understanding of the virus, its diseases, current and proposed treatments, and much more.

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  • Evidence-Based Medicine The "art of medicine" is traditionally defined as a practice combining medical knowledge (including scientific evidence), intuition, and judgment in the care of patients (Chap. 1). Evidence-based medicine (EBM) updates this construct by placing a much-greater emphasis on the processes by which the clinician gains knowledge of the most up-to-date and relevant clinical research. The key processes of EBM can be summarized in four steps: 1. Formulating the management question to be answered 2.

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  • The first edition of this text was written in the early 1990s. Since then, the field of clinical research methods has continued to develop rapidly, and this second edition has been extensively updated to reflect these developments. We have also tried to make the whole book more user friendly, both in layout and in content. All chapters now have summaries and boxes highlighting the key points, and we have provided many more illustrative examples. The biggest area of change is in our treatment of qualitative methods.

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  • The following three examples introduce the subject of clinical reasoning:  A 46-year-old man presents to his internist with a chief complaint of hemoptysis. The physician knows that the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis includes over 100 different conditions, including cancer and tuberculosis. The examination begins with some general background questions, and the patient is asked to describe his symptoms and their chronology.

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  • To understand conceptually how Bayes' theorem estimates the posttest probability of disease, it is useful to examine a nomogram version of Bayes' theorem (Fig. 3-2). In this nomogram, the accuracy of the diagnostic test in question is summarized by the likelihood ratio , which is defined as the ratio of the probability of a given test result (e.g., "positive" or "negative") in a patient with disease to the probability of that result in a patient without disease.

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  • Statistical Prediction Models Bayes' theorem, as presented above, deals with a clinical prediction problem that is unrealistically simple relative to most problems a clinician faces. Prediction models, based on multivariable statistical models, can handle much more complex problems and substantially enhance predictive accuracy for specific situations. Their particular advantage is the ability to take into account many overlapping pieces of information and assign a relative weight to each based on its unique contribution to the prediction in question.

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  • The main method of cognition of the performance of biological systems is their mathematical modeling. The essence of this method should reflect the principle of optimization in biology[9]. Any biosystem cannot function if its energy consumption is inadequately high. The same is applicable to the blood circulatory system. Its main function is to transport blood throughout the body in order to maintain the proper gaseous exchange, deliver important substances to viscera and tissues in living body and remove decay products.

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  • Vulvovaginal Infections Abnormal Vaginal Discharge If directly questioned about vaginal discharge during routine health checkups, many women acknowledge having nonspecific symptoms of vaginal discharge that do not correlate with objective signs of inflammation or with actual infection. However, unsolicited reporting of abnormal vaginal discharge does suggest bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Specifically, an abnormally increased amount or an abnormal odor of the discharge is associated with one or both of these conditions. Cervical infection with N. gonorrhoeae or C.

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  • This guideline has been developed to advise on the clinical management of and service provision for antenatal and postnatal mental health. The guideline recommendations have been developed after careful consideration of the best available evidence by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, women who have experienced mental health problems in the antenatal or postnatal period and guideline methodologists.

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  • What can be determined from such a heterogeneous aggregation of studies, concern- ing a wide array of predictands and involving such a variety of judges, mechanical combination methods, and data? Quite a lot, as it turns out. To summarize these data quantitatively for the present purpose (see Grove et al., 2000, for details omitted here), we took the median difference between all possible pairs of clinical versus mechanical predictions for a given study as the representative outcome of that study.

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  • "In IQ Testing 101, Alan Kaufman gives a well thought out, articulate account of the historical development of intelligent IQ testing. It provides non-expert readers, like me, with a better understanding of IQ and its important clinical ramifications. Kaufman's engaging style of presentation makes you feel as if you are in the thick of this important field of inquiry..."

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  • If you plan to take the Vascular Medicine Board Examination, this book is essential. Presenting the compiled knowledge of experts in the field and emphasizing topics covered on the exam, this concise text: facilitates review and retention of material with questions and answers for each chapter covers topics from multiple perspective through multidisciplinary authorship serves as a convenient quick reference with highlighted bullet points is endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology...

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  • The most important trend in biological engineering is the dynamic range of scales at which biotechnology is now able to integrate with biological processes. An explosion in micro/nanoscale technology is allowing the manufacture of nanoparticles for drug delivery into cells, miniaturized implantable microsensors for medical diagnostics, and micro-engineered robots for on-board tissue repairs. This book aims to provide an upto- date overview of the recent developments in biological engineering from diverse aspects and various applications in clinical and experimental research....

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  • The concept of paying interest on a loan appears to be widely understood; indeed in Hungary 95% of respondents gave a correct response. The question requires the simplest possible arithmetic, but records an open ended response to minimise the possibility that people guess the correct answer. People found it harder to calculate a percentage than to undertake a division. Between 40% (Albania, Peru) and 76% (Ireland) of respondents gave a correct response to the first saving related question requiring them to calculate 2% interest and add it to the principle (Table 12, Annex). The...

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  • Sales of herbal products have increased dramatically over the past five years. Unfortunately, the knowledge base devoted to the adverse effects of these products has not grown in proportion to their increased usage. Data of questionable accuracy, often designed to sell products rather than to provide objective information, can be found in the print and electronic media, most notably on the Internet. Even in medical journals, misleading information about the beneficial and adverse effects of herbs can be found....

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  • The Sixth Edition of Dr. Haines's best-selling neuroanatomy atlas features a stronger clinical emphasis, with significantly expanded clinical information and correlations. More than 110 new images--including MRI, CT, MR angiography, color line drawings, and brain specimens--highlight anatomical-clinical correlations. Internal spinal cord and brainstem morphology are presented in a new format that shows images in both anatomical and clinical orientations, correlating this anatomy exactly with how the brain and its functional systems are viewed in the clinical setting.

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  • Read, follow, and listen. You probably won’t get much in the way of results from blogging until you know what and how to write. The best way to do that, and by the way something I’ve done and continue to do daily, is read lots of blogs. Follow lots of people who point out interesting reads, listen using RSS and bookmarking sites like Delicious, and read every question your prospects and customers voice. Use an RSS reader such as Google Reader to make it very easy to listen to lots of content and then get a little notebook and carry...

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  • Postgraduate surgical examinations take the form of multiple-choice questions, viva voce examinations and clinicals. In all the Royal Colleges, a key component of the first two of these sections is critical care. This book is a companion to Surgical Critical Care, by Robert Ashford and Neal Evans, published by Greenwich Medical Media Ltd in 2001, and examines all aspects of the subject that may be assessed.

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