Supervision, particularly as a component of initial training, and increasingly
as a contributory element in continuing professional development, is deeply
embedded in the cultures of the helping professions. This is despite the claim
(Holloway and Neufeldt, 1995) that there is no research on standardised and
empirically validated training programmes for supervisors. Client outcome is
the ultimate test of the effectiveness of supervision. But the relationship
between supervisor interventions and client change is subtle and complex.
Let’s face it. Not every nurse would make a good clinical instructor.
Technical proficiency alone does not guarantee the
ability to effectively manage nursing students at the clinical
site. Even nurses who are capable of providing clinical instruction
may not wish to take on the considerable personal liability
associated with the oversight of these nursing students.
Perhaps you are different. Perhaps you are one of those
nurses who is in fact both capable and willing to impart your
knowledge to the next generation of caregivers.
Starting in the spring of 2009, a fast recovery in global equities and a rise
in house values in many economies (the euro area and Japan are exceptions)
were accompanied by a reduction in corporate bond spreads and other risk
premia (Graphs II.1 and III.2, top panels), though some risk measures have
meanwhile risen again in the context of the Greek sovereign debt crisis.
Reported VaR figures show that risk as measured by potential losses from
banks’ trading positions remains high (Graph III.2, bottom left-hand panel).
The current arrangements for local audit, whereby a single organisation - the Audit Commission - is the regulator, commissioner and provider of local audit services are inefficient and unnecessarily centralised. The Audit Commission has increased the professionalism and the quality of local government audit, but, it has also become too focused on reporting to central Government and supporting the previous era of a target driven Government.
Second, board members in these small organizations often do double duty. One mo-
ment they are directors who set policy and supervise the executive. The next moment,
they are volunteer staff who greet new clients, stuff envelopes, or run the phone tree for
the annual fundraiser. This is an inherent and unavoidable conflict of interest (though
it is manageable). The board members are supervising the executive in their policy role,
and doing the executive’s bidding in their staff volunteer role.
Perifollicular swelling and redness are desired clinical endpoints. They indicate that the patient
has been treated with an appropriate fluence. The sunburned feeling and swelling usually last
one to three hours. Applying ice will give relief and reduce the swelling duration. A topical
cortisone cream can also be used. Redness can last for a few days but can by easily covered by
applying makeup. If there are signs of epidermal damage, the patient should use an antibiotic
ointment or call if there are problems. Patients should avoid sun exposure....
Psychological well-being is clearly part of being healthy. It is an important part of healthcare
management of any condition where psychological health is impaired or where it has particular
impact on clinical management.
There is evidence of a high prevalence of psychological ill-health in people with diabetes,
notably for depression,21 which is often under-recognised.
Asthma like symptoms spontaneously go into remission in
a substantial proportion of children 5 years and younger.
Therefore, the continued need for asthma treatment in this
age group should be assessed at least twice a year.
Component 4 - Manage Asthma Exacerbations:
Exacerbations of asthma (asthma attacks or acute
asthma) are episodes of progressive increase in shortness
of breath, cough, wheezing, or chest tightness, or some
combination of these symptoms. Severe exacerbations
are potentially life threatening, and their treatment requires
The American Marketing Association (AMA) seems to be the self appointed arbiter of the
definition of marketing. Certainly in Australia and New Zealand, American texts and
definitions dominate study of the discipline in academia. Currently the AMA defines
marketing as, "The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and
distribution of ideas goods and services to create exchange and satisfy individual and
organisational objectives" (Marketing News, 1985, p.1).
A third way to define power is in terms of the ability to structure an environment
of choice, to determine the “rules of the game” of some sphere of human activity. Also
called structural power, this notion focuses on how individuals or groups of individuals
influence “regimes” –sets of rules, norms, procedures, and institutions in a particular
area. An example of structural power would be the ability of the Motion Picture
Association to prevent government censorship of movies by adopting a variety of self-
regulatory measures (such as voluntary ratings schemes)....
We conclude that additional investments in cleaner production and products may be
stimulated by widening the cost gap between the two types of technologies, for instance, by
additionally charging for the use of waste and energy. The potential for continuously substi-
tuting end-of-pipe technologies with cleaner technologies might be limited, however, since
not all regulations favoring end-of-pipe technologies can be cut down. For example, addi-
tional filters currently reduce particulate emissions of Diesel cars more effectively than the
more eco-efficient Diesel engines.
With several (not joint) guarantees enhanced by seniority and collateral, each
guaranteeing Member State would again remain liable for its own share of Stability Bond
issuance. However, to ensure that Stability Bonds would always be repaid, even in case of
default, a number of credit enhancements could be considered by the Member States. First,
senior status could be applied to Stability Bond issuance. Second, Stability Bonds could be
partially collateralised (e.g. using cash, gold, shares of public companies etc.).
In February 2010, the CPSS and the Technical Committee of IOSCO launched a
comprehensive review of the three existing sets of standards for FMIs – the CPSIPS, RSSS,
and RCCP – in support of the FSB’s broader efforts to strengthen core financial
infrastructures and markets by ensuring that gaps in international standards are identified
The CPSS and the Technical Committee of IOSCO also identified the
review as an opportunity to harmonise and, where appropriate, strengthen the three sets of
To capture several features of housing booms, we look at three variables: real credit to the private
sector, residential investment and real house prices. Apart from interest rates, all variables are in
logs. The data is taken from the OECD Economic Outlook, the IMF International Financial
Statistics (IFS), and the BIS Macro database. The variables and data sources are listed in the
appendix. We estimate the model on quarterly data over the period of the Great Moderation from
1984 Q1 to 2007 Q2 with two lags.
The hard disk should have enough capacity to hold data for 52
weekly backups. The size of the storage device should be about 52 times the amount of data that you
have, plus 30% or so). Remember, this should be done on each of your business computers. It is
important to periodically test your backed up data to ensure that you can read it reliably. There are “plug
and play” products which, when connected to your computer, will automatically search for files and back
them up to a removable media, such as an external USB hard...
This campaign would then be expanded upon by celebrity advocacy. Roberts had
seen the power of celebrities – from musicians to actors – in her corporate work. They
had the ability to generate passion amongst their followers, generate buzz in the media
and attract donors. She believed she could work with diverse celebrities across the
celebrity structure and harness this incredibly powerful marketing tool to promote
YouthAIDS to a broad audience.
· Disaggregated regional or local data about the environment, sometimes linked to a
geographic information system. Questions often arise about the scale of environmental
data; do they pertain to a village, a province, a watershed, or the whole country? Because
the SNA is national, and most countries maintain their economic data at the national
(rather than the regional or local) level, environmental accounts are primarily national
accounts. For example, they might tell us how much energy was consumed nationwide,
not how much was consumed in each village or province.
The proposed new local audit regime would continue to provide Parliament with the assurances it needs on public spending. The National Audit Office would prepare the Codes of audit practice, which prescribe the way in which auditors are to carry out their functions, and which would continue to be approved by Parliament, and associated guidance. The National Audit Office would also continue to audit Government departments providing funding to local public bodies and will continue to receive Whole of Government Accounts returns.
An enlightened policy approach to proposed or continued toxic
chemical use, in an age where the adverse effects have been
widely and increasingly documented, is to first ask whether there
is a less toxic way of achieving the toxic chemical’s intended
purpose. Simply, “Is there another practice that would make the
substance unnecessary?” This approach does not preclude and
should demand the prohibition of high hazard chemical use, those
chemicals that are simply too dangerous.
ESPON 2006 database has produced original data using NUTS1999 but also NUTS2003
divisions, which can be easily connected to basic indicator. In particular, measure of
accessibility, typologies, etc.
It is obvious that the new ESPON 2013 program will use the NUTS2006 divisions as
reference for the future works but it is not a problem to use the former NUTS2003
division as reference for an intermediate period.