Clinical terms

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  • Physiology plays a major role in the scientific foundation of medicine and other subjects related to human health and physical performance. Pharmacology is the science which deals with the effects of drugs on living systems and their use in the treatment of disease. This book is designed to enhance students’ understanding of physiology and pharmacology via a series of case studies involving human disease and its treatment. Traditional university teaching methods focus on informing students in terms of physiological and pharmacological theory.

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  • In past decades the number of exercising individuals and the area of sports medicine have grown considerably. Sports medicine has developed both in terms of its clinical importance with appropriate diagnosis and adequate rehabilitation following injury as well as its potential role in the promotion of health and prevention of life-style diseases in individuals of all ages.

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  • But pain is perfect misery, the worst Of evils, and, excessive, overturns All patience. (John Milton, 1608-1674, Paradise Lost) tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.1 It is mediated by specific nerve fibres to the brain where its conscious appreciation may be modified by various factors. The word 'unpleasant' comprises the whole range of disagreeable feelings from being merely inconvenienced to misery, anguish, anxiety, depression and desperation, to the ultimate cure of suicide.2,3 • Analgesic drug: a drug that relieves pain due to multiple causes, e.g.

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  • Antiepilepsy drugs: principles of management; withdrawal of therapy; pregnancy; teratogenic effects; epilepsy in children; status epilepticus • Individual drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, lamotrigine, vigabatrin, gabapentin, clonazepam, topiramate, levetiracetam. • Parkinsonism Objectives of therapy Drug therapy; problems of long-term treatment • Other disorders of movement • Tetanus cortical neurons simultaneously (primary generalised seizure). Bromide (1857) was the first drug to be used for the treatment of epilepsy, but it is now obsolete.

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  • Diabetes Mellitus The success of islet cell and pancreas transplantation provides proof of concept for a cell-based approach for type I diabetes. However, the demand for donor pancreata far exceeds the number available, and maintenance of long-term graft survival remains a problem. The search for a renewable source of stem cells capable of regenerating pancreatic islets has therefore been intensive. Pancreatic βcell turnover occurs in the normal pancreas, although the source of the new βcells is controversial.

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  • Strategies for Stem Cell Replacement Stem cell transplantation is not a new concept and it is already part of established medical practice. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (Chap. 68) are responsible for the long-term repopulation of all blood elements in bone marrow transplant recipients. HSC transplantation is now the gold standard against which other stem cell transplantation therapies will be measured. Transplantation of differentiated cells is also a clinical reality, as donated organs (e.g., liver, kidney) and tissues (i.e.

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  • Infection is a major category of human disease and skilled management of antimicrobial drugs is of the first importance.The term chemotherapy is used for the drug treatment of parasitic infections in which the parasites (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, worms) are destroyed or removed without injuring the hostThe use of the term to cover all drug or synthetic drug therapy needlessly removes a distinction which is convenient to the clinician and has the sanction of long usage.

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  • Principles of Pharmacokinetics The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion— collectively termed drug disposition—determine the concentration of drug delivered to target effector molecules. Absorption Bioavailability When a drug is administered orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly, rectally, sublingually, or directly into desired sites of action, the amount of drug actually entering the systemic circulation may be less than with the intravenous route (Fig. 5-2A ).

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  • Diagnostic Hypothesis Generation Cognitive scientists studying the thought processes of expert clinicians have observed that clinicians group data into packets, or "chunks," which are stored in their memories and manipulated to generate diagnostic hypotheses. Because short-term memory can typically hold only 7–10 items at a time, the number of packets that can be actively integrated into hypothesis-generating activities is similarly limited.

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  • Velocity encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (VE-PC MRI) is another imaging technique used to noninvasively measure Achilles tendon strain and changes in its force-displacement relationship concomitant with chronic unloading and subsequent recuperation. This technique will be reviewed in terms of its ability to quantify the Achilles tendon Young’s modulus (MPa) from a stress-strain curve.

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  • Long-Term Expression in Genetic Disease: In Vivo Gene Transfer with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors Recombinant AAV vectors have emerged as attractive gene delivery vehicles for genetic disease. Engineered from a small replication-defective DNA virus, they are devoid of viral coding sequences and trigger very little immune response in experimental animals. They are capable of transducing nondividing target cells, and the donated DNA is stabilized primarily in an episomal form, thus minimizing risks associated with insertional mutagenesis.

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  • One strand in the recent academic literature seeks to explain the existence of different bank interest rates on loans and deposits on the basis of monopolistic competition in the banking sector. In this case, banks earn a positive profit margin because they can set the level of bank interest rates such that deposit rates are below the interbank rate and loan rates are above it. In addition, the bank faces costs in adjusting its interest rates and will take the pricing decision of competitors into account in order to preserve long-term customer relationships.

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  • Bacterial Vaginosis This syndrome (formerly termed nonspecific vaginitis, Haemophilus vaginitis, anaerobic vaginitis, or Gardnerella-associated vaginal discharge) is characterized by symptoms of vaginal malodor and a slightly to moderately increased white discharge, which appears homogeneous, is low in viscosity, and evenly coats the vaginal mucosa. An interesting observation is that new genital HPV infection in young women is associated with increased subsequent risk of developing bacterial vaginosis.

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  • This book contains twenty client profiles to use in practicing interviewing and diagnostic skills. Ten profiles are of adult cases ranging in age from eighteen to seventy (chapters 3-12). Ten profiles are of child or teen cases ranging in age from seven to seventeen (chapters 13-22). In addition to age, the twenty profiles vary in terms of ethnicity, gender, national origin, religion, socioeconomic status, presenting problems, and level of problem severity. The instructor can have students simply read through these profiles and then complete the three sets of exercises that follow them.

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  • The UKPDS included an analysis of intensive blood glucose control with metformin for overweight patients compared to conventional treatment primarily with diet. The study included 753 overweight (more than 120% ideal body weight) patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes from 15 hospital-based clinics in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Of these patients 342 were allocated to an intensive blood glucose control policy with metformin and 411 were allocated to conventional treatment, primarily with diet alone. The study was conducted from 1977 to 1991.

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  • It has been almost a decade since the first edition of Clinical Management of Diabetic Neuropathy was published. Since then, all societies have seen an explosion in obesity and diabetes. As a result, there is also an explosion in long-term diabetes complications, including diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy therefore remains a major health problem that has not only serious consequences for the patient but also carries a significant financial burden for the health care-providing organizations of every society....

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  • However, from an energetic point of view, it has been debated that phenolics favour hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms, in which lower energies are involved (Leopoldini et al., 2011). The radicals derived from oxygen represent the most important class of radical species generated in living systems. However the term antioxidant is often used to describe the scavenging activity of all reactive radicals including e.g. RNS radicals.

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  • as expressed in our mission statement, RREEF Real Estate seeks to provide our clients with superior long-term returns while appropriately managing risks to our clients. this goal directly aligns with our commitment to continuously seek improvement in the environmental performance of our assets under management across a variety of value drivers. being sustainable enhances operating efficiency, increasingly satisfies investor considerations and mandates, promotes compliance with growing regulations and mitigates risks.

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  • The first two editions of the Dictionary of Neurological Signs were very well-received by readers and reviewers alike. Like those editions, this Third Edition, updated and expanded, can be almost as well described in terms of what the book is not, along with details about what it is. The Dictionary is not a handbook for treatment of neurological disorders

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  • The global environment that charac- terises the business world highlights the importance of developing strate- gies that go beyond the geographical boundaries of one country. Wage-rate differentials, expanding foreign mar- kets and improved transportation break down barriers of time and space between countries and force the logistics function to take on a global dimension. Global logistics is the response to the increasing integration of international markets as firms try to remain competitive.

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