Clinical tests

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  • The second edition of this handy pocket-sized book presents a comprehensive collection of clinical tests for all the major musculoskeletal structures. The tests are divided into separate sections based on body region. Each chapter opens with a figure depicting range of motion and an algorithm that provides a rapid overview of symptoms, tests, imaging, and diagnosis. For each clinical test, the author provides step-by-step descriptions of the methodology, starting at the patient's initial position, and then describes the evaluation and possible diagnosis. ...

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  • Tham khảo sách 'clinical tests for the musculoskeletal system', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • In Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach, Dr. S. Brent Brotzman and Robert C. Manske help you apply the most effective, evidence-based protocols for maximizing return to function following common sports injuries and post-surgical conditions. A well-respected, comprehensive source for evaluating, treating, and rehabilitating orthopaedic patients, the 3rd Edition guides you on the prevention of running injuries, t

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  • Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. .Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. .Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System Examinations—Signs—Phenomena Klaus Buckup, M.D. Klinikum Dortmund Orthopedic Hospital Dortmund Germany 521 illustrations Thieme Stuttgart · New York Buckup, Clinical Tests for the Musculoskeletal System © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved.

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  • "In IQ Testing 101, Alan Kaufman gives a well thought out, articulate account of the historical development of intelligent IQ testing. It provides non-expert readers, like me, with a better understanding of IQ and its important clinical ramifications. Kaufman's engaging style of presentation makes you feel as if you are in the thick of this important field of inquiry..."

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  • PRESCRIBING, CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMICS Prescribing, consumption and economics The reasons for taking a drug history from patients are: • Drugs are a cause of disease. Withdrawal of drugs, if abrupt, can cause disease, e.g. benzodiazepines, antiepilepsy drugs. • Drugs can conceal disease, e.g. adrenal steroid. • Drugs can interact causing positive adverse effect, or negative adverse effect, i.e. therapeutic failure. • Drugs can give diagnostic clues, e.g. ampicillin and amoxicillin causing rash in infectious mononucleosis — a diagnostic adverse effect, not a diagnostic test.

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  • Clinical pharmacology comprises all aspects of the scientific study of drugs in man. Its objective is to optimise drug therapy and it is justified in so far as it is of practical use. Over recent years pharmacology has undergone great expansion resulting from technology that allows the understanding of molecular action and the capacity to exploit this. The potential consequences for therapeutics are enormous. All cellular mechanisms (normal and pathological), in their immense complexity are, in principle, identifiable.

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  • Population Screening Mass genetic screening programs require tests of high enough sensitivity and specificity to be cost-effective. An effective screening program should fulfill the following criteria: that the tested disorder is prevalent and serious; that it can be influenced presymptomatically through lifestyle changes, screening, or medications; and that identification of risk does not result in undue discrimination or harm.

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  • Follow-Up Care after Testing Depending on the nature of the genetic disorder, posttest interventions may include (1) cautious surveillance and appropriate health care screening, (2) specific medical interventions, (3) chemoprevention, (4) risk avoidance, and (5) referral to support services. For example, patients with known pathologic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are offered intensive screening as well as the option of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy.

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  • Molecular analysis is generally more informative if testing is initiated in a symptomatic family member, since the identification of a mutation can direct the testing of other at-risk family members (whether they are symptomatic or not). In the absence of additional familial or environmental risk factors, individuals who test negative for the mutation found in the affected family member can be informed that they are at general population risk for that particular disease. Furthermore, they can be reassured that they are not at risk for passing on the mutation to their children.

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  • Many disorders exhibit the feature of locus heterogeneity, which refers to the fact that mutations in different genes can cause phenotypically similar disorders. For example, osteogenesis imperfecta (Chap. 357), long QT syndrome (Chap. 226), muscular dystrophy (Chap. 382), homocystinuria (Chap. 358), retinitis pigmentosa (Chap. 29), and hereditary predisposition to colon cancer (Chap. 87) or breast cancer (Chap. 86) can each be caused by mutations in distinct genes.

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  • Therapeutic Interventions Based on Genetic Risk for Disease Specific treatments are now available for an increasing number of genetic disorders, whether identified through population-based screening or directed testing (Table 64-2). Although the strategies for therapeutic interventions are best developed for childhood hereditary metabolic diseases, these principles are making their way into the diagnosis and management of adult-onset disorders. Hereditary hemochromatosis illustrates many of the issues raised by the availability of genetic screening in the adult population.

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  • Calculating sensitivity and specificity requires selection of a decision value for the test to define the threshold value at or above which the test is considered "positive." For any given test, as this cut point is moved to improve sensitivity, specificity typically falls and vice versa. This dynamic tradeoff between more accurate identification of subjects with disease versus those without disease is often displayed graphically as a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Fig. 3-1). An ROC curve plots sensitivity (y-axis) versus 1 – specificity (x-axis).

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  • The following three examples introduce the subject of clinical reasoning:  A 46-year-old man presents to his internist with a chief complaint of hemoptysis. The physician knows that the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis includes over 100 different conditions, including cancer and tuberculosis. The examination begins with some general background questions, and the patient is asked to describe his symptoms and their chronology.

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  • To understand conceptually how Bayes' theorem estimates the posttest probability of disease, it is useful to examine a nomogram version of Bayes' theorem (Fig. 3-2). In this nomogram, the accuracy of the diagnostic test in question is summarized by the likelihood ratio , which is defined as the ratio of the probability of a given test result (e.g., "positive" or "negative") in a patient with disease to the probability of that result in a patient without disease.

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  • Preventive measures and therapeutic interventions are not restricted to metabolic disorders. Identification of familial forms of long QT syndrome, associated with ventricular arrhythmias, allows early electrocardiographic testing and the use of prophylactic antiarrhythmic therapy, overdrive pacemakers, or defibrillators (Chap. 226). Individuals with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be screened by ultrasound, treated with beta blockers or other drugs, and counseled about the importance of avoiding strenuous exercise and dehydration (Chap. 231).

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  • This book is designed to help you identify and address any potential weaknesses in your essential calculation skills. In turn this will help you become more confi dent and profi cient in the aspects of numeracy that are an essential part of modern nursing care. You may fi nd an electronic calculator useful to check your answers, but remember that calculators may not always be available in the workplace, and that their use in clinical practice is generally discouraged. You need to become confi dent in applying calculation skills without the aid of a calculator....

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  • The investigation of the oesophagus has seen major advanciens thes econd half of the 20th Century as technology has developed and our understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of oesophageal diseases has increased. In thew ake of these changes, research and development of oesophageal function tests have lead to a newbr eed of specialists in medicine to provide for the needs of the clinician in diagnosis and management of patients with oesophageal diseases.

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  • Organized by type of test. Now in its second edition, Delmar's Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests adds over 50 new entries to its compilation of over 600 lab and diagnostic tests. Up-to-date information is provided in an easy-to-use, easy-to-find format ideal for

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  • STD care and management begin with risk assessment and proceed to clinical assessment, diagnostic testing or screening, treatment, and prevention. Indeed, the routine care of any patient begins with risk assessment (e.g., for risk of heart disease, cancer). STD/HIV risk assessment is important in primary care, urgent care, and emergency care settings as well as in specialty clinics providing adolescent, prenatal, and family planning services.

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