Clinical types

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  • Advances in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and cure of neurological diseases are based upon scientific discovery. The journey from discovery to treatment is often arduous and involves both basic and clinical science. Over the ages, multiple intertwined paths of discovery connect the recognition of distinct diseases of the nervous system to exquisite diagnostic descriptions, which, when coupled with the scientific understanding of the disease, have allowed the development of effective treatments and interventions...

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  • We must be daring and search after Truth; even if we do not succeed in finding her, we shall at least come closer than we are at present (Galen AD 130-200) SYNOPSIS (CONTINUED) Surveillance studies and the reporting of spontaneous adverse reactions respectively determine the clinical profile of the drug and detect rare adverse events. Further trials to compare new medicines with existing medicines are also required.These form the basis of cost-effectiveness comparisons.

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  • Diabetes Mellitus The success of islet cell and pancreas transplantation provides proof of concept for a cell-based approach for type I diabetes. However, the demand for donor pancreata far exceeds the number available, and maintenance of long-term graft survival remains a problem. The search for a renewable source of stem cells capable of regenerating pancreatic islets has therefore been intensive. Pancreatic βcell turnover occurs in the normal pancreas, although the source of the new βcells is controversial.

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  • The clinical and basic science of allergic disease is moving and evolving so rapidly that it is nearly impossible to keep up full of information regarding the news mechanisms, signalling cell markers, cellular plasticity and expression, biological mediators targets or molecular and genetic discovers aspects related to the allergy. Moreover the systemic impact of this pathology determines the complexity of the more recent evidence demonstrates that the rapid regulation of central immune organs in clinical response of the mucosa to the allergen or offending agent.

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  • Chronic consumption For benefits of chronic alcohol consumption, see page 187. Central nervous system. The development of dependence on alcohol appears to involve alterations in central nervous system neurotransmission. The acute effect of alcohol is to block NMDA receptors for which the normal agonist is glutamate, the main excitatory transmitter in the brain. Chronic exposure increases the number of NMDA receptors and also 'L type' calcium channels, while the action of the (inhibitory) GABA neurotransmitter is reduced.

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  • Other Organ Systems and the Future The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has been studied for many other organ systems and cell types, including skin, eye, cartilage, bone, kidney, lung, endometrium, vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, striated muscle, and others. In fact, the potential for stem cell regeneration of damaged organs and tissues is virtually limitless. However, numerous obstacles must be overcome before stem cell therapies can become a widespread clinical reality.

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  • If one asks what neuroscience is, the answer can be found in this book. Neuroscience embraces not only anatomical and physiological studies but also cell biology, computer science, and biochemistry. Equally important for neuroscientific research are other disciplines, such as psychology, psychiatry, neurology and additional recent ones, such as neuroeconomics and social neuroscience. This book comprises chapters on diverse topics in neuroscience ranging from cellular, computational, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience.

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  • Often, there is a need to use the knowledge from multiple ontologies. This is particularly the case within the context of medical imaging, where a single ontology is not enough to provide the complementary knowledge about anatomy, radiology and diseases that is required by the related applications. Consequently, semantic integration of these different but related types of medical knowledge that is present in disparate domain ontologies becomes necessary. Medical ontology alignment addresses this need by identifying the semantically equivalent concepts across multiple medical ontologies. ...

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  • From the emergence of clinical sleep medicine marked by the establishment of the harbinger Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic in the mid 1970s, offspring sleep disorders clinics and centers have grown exponentially with the recognition of the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs of the reservoir of patients suffering from symptoms of what are now recognized and classified as the nosology of human sleep disorders.

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  • Long-Term Expression in Genetic Disease: In Vivo Gene Transfer with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors Recombinant AAV vectors have emerged as attractive gene delivery vehicles for genetic disease. Engineered from a small replication-defective DNA virus, they are devoid of viral coding sequences and trigger very little immune response in experimental animals. They are capable of transducing nondividing target cells, and the donated DNA is stabilized primarily in an episomal form, thus minimizing risks associated with insertional mutagenesis.

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  • Echocardiography increasingly has become a key component in the routine evaluation of patients with suspected or known cardiovascular disease. As this technique has evolved and matured, the role of the echocardiographer has shifted from simply providing a description of images to providing an integrated assessment of echocardiographic data in conjunction with the other clinical data from each patient. In effect, echocardiography has become a specialized type of cardiology consultation.

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  • We present an NLP system that classifies the assertion type of medical problems in clinical notes used for the Fourth i2b2/VA Challenge. Our classifier uses a variety of linguistic features, including lexical, syntactic, lexicosyntactic, and contextual features. To overcome an extremely unbalanced distribution of assertion types in the data set, we focused our efforts on adding features specifically to improve the performance of minority classes.

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  • Clinical trials enable scientific discoveries to advance patient care, and they also inform and guide subsequent research. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports the largest U.S. network of clinical trials of any type, of which the largest component is the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program (informally known as the Cooperative Group Program). It currently comprises 10 Groups that involve more than 3,100 institutions and 14,000 investigators who enroll more than 25,000 patients in clinical trials each year.

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  • We see this work as an opportunity to break new ground. In Health Care Communication Using Personality Type we combine a well-researched and respected framework for understanding normal differences in people with the practical need for interacting success-fully with patients and others in a health care setting. Our backgrounds and interests dovetail in this practical collaboration. Brock’s background is as an organizational psychologist, bringing applied psychology and its tools to management and organizational development....

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  • This paper presents ongoing research in clinical information extraction. This work introduces a new genre of text which are not well-written, noise prone, ungrammatical and with much cryptic content. A corpus of clinical progress notes drawn form an Intensive Care Service has been manually annotated with more than 15000 clinical named entities in 11 entity types. This paper reports on the challenges involved in creating the annotation schema, and recognising and annotating clinical named entities. ...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Clinical and diagnostic virology" presents the following contents: Adenoviruses, arboviruses and haemorrhagic fever viruses, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human herpes viruses types, hepatitis B and D viruses, parainfluenza viruses,...

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  • Chapter 2 - Types of medical practice. When you finish this chapter, you should: Describe medical specialties and specialists, explain the purpose of the American Board of Medical Specialists, describe the duties of several types of allied health professionals with whom medical assistants may work, name professional associations that may help advance a medical assistant’s career.

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  • Chapter 5 - Using and maintaining office equipment. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Describe the types of office equipment used in a medical practice, explain how each piece of office equipment is used, list the steps in making purchasing decisions for office equipment, compare and contrast leasing and buying,...

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  • Chapter 6 - Using computers in the office. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: List and describe common types of computers, identify computer hardware and software components and explain functions of each, describe the types of computer software commonly used in the medical office, discuss how to select computer equipment for the medical office,...

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  • Chapter 7 - Managing correspondences and mail. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: List the supplies necessary for creating and mailing professional-looking correspondence, identify the types of correspondence used in medical office communications, describe the parts of a letter and the different letter and punctuation styles,...

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