Carbon dioxide is produced in several anthropogenic activities at a rate of ca.
35 Gt/y. The main sources are: (1) the combustion of fossil carbon (production of
electric energy, transport, heating, industry), (2) the utilization of biomass (combustion
to obtain energy, fermentation), and (3) the decomposition of natural
carbonates (mainly in the steel and cement industry).
Since its inception in 1997, DOE’s Carbon Sequestration
Program – managed within FE and implemented by
NETL – has been developing both core and supporting
technologies through which CCS can become an
effective and economically viable option for reducing
CO2 emissions from coal-based power plants (NETL,
The DOE’s Carbon Sequestration Program also
supports global initiatives, such as the Carbon
Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), an
international climate change initiative that focuses on
the development of technologies to cost-effectively
capture and sequester CO2, and the International Energy
Agency (IEA). The Carbon Sequestration Program
is also providing technical and financial support to
international projects through the Core R&D MVA
Program. Projects include the Weyburn Project (see
Greenhouse gases such as CO2 and methane are
believed to contribute to global warming.
Dust is a common problem throughout all mining
activities. Dust generated by vehicle traffic can be
reduced through a variety of means. Where water
resources are not limited, regular watering with
mobile water trucks or fixed sprinkler systems is effec-
tive. Otherwise the application of surface binding
agents, the selection of suitable construction materials
and the sealing of heavily used access ways may be
Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for all life forms (except chemolithotrophic prokaryotes). Much of the energy of photosynthesis is used to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from atmospheric CO2. How is solar energy captured and transformed into metabolically useful chemical energy? How is the chemical energy produced by photosynthesis used to create organic molecules from carbon dioxide?