Xem 1-20 trên 52 kết quả Co2 emission
  • The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitigation strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and energyrelated emissions. Currently, most available data only includes the process emissions. We also discuss CO2 emission mitigation options for the cement industry....

    pdf28p hailedangbs 02-05-2013 22 1   Download

  • There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies, the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs. ‘ Climate change ’ [1] in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods....

    pdf485p aries23 29-09-2012 37 17   Download

  • The research is designed for developing the pilot small-scale clean development mechanism bundled project activities in Vietnam electricity/ energy sector. Its overall purpose is to assess the potential of rice husk - fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta.

    pdf0p hailedangbs 02-05-2013 31 6   Download

  • The objective of this research is to study of microbial lipid production by locally photosynthetic microalgae and oleaginous yeast via integrated cultivation technique using CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation. A maximum specific growth rate of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 of 0.284 (1/d) was obtained under an integrated cultivation and a maximum lipid yield of 1.339g/L was found after cultivation for 5 days, while 0.969g/L of lipid yield was obtained after day 6 of cultivation time by using CO2 from air. A high value of volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.

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  • You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The table below shows CO2 emissions for different forms of transport in the European Union. The Pie Chart shows the percentage of European Union funds being spent on different forms of transport. You

    doc3p anhheomap 13-12-2010 50 16   Download

  • Traditional electrical power systems were essentially based on centralized and fuel consuming power generation plants, where end-users were supplied via unidirectional transmission and distribution grids.

    pdf0p ktcn_1 10-07-2012 37 8   Download

  • The ocean absorbs a significant portion of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities, equivalent to about one-third of the total emissions for the past 200 years from fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land use change (Sabine et al., 2004). Uptake of CO2 by the ocean benefits society by moderating the rate of climate change but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry, decreasing the pH of the water and leading to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification.

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  • With a vision and a strategy the 21st century city will be green, a healthy place for all and will generate zero net pollution. This book offers a vision and a strategy. Productive urban landscapes have two huge challenges to address: CO2 emissions are projected to increase by two-thirds in the next 20 years, and as the global food production increases so does the number of people going hungry, with the number of urban hungry soaring. The symbiotic relationship between a productive landscape and the human settlement system is as old as civilization.

    pdf319p tiramisu0908 30-10-2012 35 6   Download

  • At the global level, the relationship between population and environ- mental impact is not easy to test in a way that leads to reliable and non- spurious estimates. This is because of the lack of data on environmental degradation covering a sufficiently large number of countries over a suffi- ciently large period of time. It is for this reason that studies have tended to focus on CO2 emissions and energy use, for which cross-country and time- series data are available.

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  • On behalf of its clients, PGGM Investments manages several real estate investment portfolios structured around listed real estate and private real estate. PGGM Investments recognizes the impact real estate has on the environment as well as on societal systems, for instance with regard to CO2 emissions. This document addresses PGGM Investments’ policy on integrating material environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues into our real estate investments. The scope of this policy covers both the listed and the private real estate portfolios.

    pdf4p quaivatxanh 01-12-2012 29 5   Download

  • The assessment, presented as ministers met in Amsterdam to discuss greening transport, points out a series of flaws in the tests. First, various equipment that increases vehicle weight, thereby adding to emissions, is not included. Growing use of seat heaters, air conditioning and the like could be adding an extra 16 to 28 grams per kilometer (g/km) to new car CO2 emissions, the agency says.

    pdf30p nhacnenzingme 23-03-2013 18 4   Download

  • In addition, the popularity of 'chip tuning' diesel engines to improve their power also risks wiping out the benefits of lower emissions from diesel fuel, and seems to boost PM emissions by a factor of three. Furthermore, says the report, even without factoring in non-tested equipment like air conditioning, CO2 emissions from transport have gone up about 20% over the past decade, as growth outstrips clean technology innovations. An agreement from car manufacturers to cut CO2 to 140g/km by 2008, though likely to be met, will not be enough to have a significant impact on emissions.

    pdf90p nhacnenzingme 23-03-2013 18 4   Download

  • King, Heywood and others foresee the potential for further improvements in new car fuel economy, up to a 50% reduction in L/100 km by 2030-2035, mainly through the wider penetration of technolo- gies leading up to, and including, fully hybridized vehicles. The introduction of grid-connected bat- tery electric vehicles (probably first as “plug-in” hy- brids) would also contribute to efficiency improve- ment (in addition to fuel shifts toward electricity), assuming sustained progress in battery technol- ogy.

    pdf32p nhacnenzingme 23-03-2013 29 4   Download

  • The first approach has the drawback that assumptions need to be made about the average an‐ nual vehicle mileage. The second approach allows to derive for cars an average annual mileage  by confronting  the car  stock with  the car  transport demand  that  is derived  in  the MODAL and  TIME CHOICE module.   In  the  first version of PLANET  the  first approach was used.  In  the new version of PLANET,  the  second approach is used.

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  • The industry is still improving technologically. It is far more mature than in 1993, and new developments appear poised to bring costs down further and to reduce the environmental impact of producing ethanol. In this report, we examine various production technologies, beginning with input improve- ments and then discussing process improvements, environmental technolo- gies, and technologies involving coproducts. Finally, we look at niche markets and briefly examine cellulosic conversion.

    pdf118p loixinloi 08-05-2013 17 4   Download

  • The European Physical Society (EPS) is an independent body funded by contributions from national physical societies, other bodies and individual members. It represents over 100,000 physicists and can call on expertise in all areas where physics is involved. The Position Paper consists of two parts, the EPS position, summarising the recommendations, and a scientific/technical part. The scientific/technical part is essential to the Position Paper as it contains all facts and arguments that form the basis of the EPS position. (i) The objectiv...

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  • Voluntary carbon offsets have been traded in relatively small volumes and on a demonstration basis since the late 1980s. Some organizations, such as the Climate Trust in Oregon, have many years of experience in purchasing and retiring offsets on behalf of clients or customers (the Climate Trust was established in 1997 to assist new power plants in Oregon to meet a state regulatory requirement for net CO2 emissions).

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  • This document should be of interest to a broad audience interested in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. It was developed for regulatory organizations, project developers, and national and state policymakers to increase awareness of existing and developing monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) techniques. Carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks are a natural part of the carbon cycle; however, natural terrestrial sinks are not sufficient to absorb all the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere each year.

    pdf132p bin_pham 06-02-2013 20 3   Download

  • Since its inception in 1997, DOE’s Carbon Sequestration Program – managed within FE and implemented by NETL – has been developing both core and supporting technologies through which CCS can become an effective and economically viable option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-based power plants (NETL, 2007a).

    pdf31p bin_pham 06-02-2013 16 3   Download

  • They find that the elasticity of CO2 emissions and energy are close to unity (i.e., a 1% increase in population leads to an approximately 1% increase in CO2 emissions). They do not estimate how these elasticities may vary with population levels. All of these results are based on cross-sectional data for 1 year only. Finally, Shi (2003), again in the context of the IPAT model, uses a panel of cross-sectional and time series data. Shi finds population elas- ticities for CO2 of between 1.41 and 1.

    pdf9p tainhacmienphi 19-02-2013 17 3   Download

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