The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic
CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission
mitigation strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from
combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we
review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and energyrelated
emissions. Currently, most available data only includes the process emissions.
We also discuss CO2 emission mitigation options for the cement industry....
There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated
to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies,
the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global
warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs.
‘ Climate change ’  in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed
directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the
global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed
over comparable time periods....
The research is designed for developing the pilot small-scale clean development
mechanism bundled project activities in Vietnam electricity/ energy sector. Its overall
purpose is to assess the potential of rice husk - fuelled bio-power development projects
in Mekong delta.
The objective of this research is to study of microbial lipid production by locally photosynthetic microalgae and oleaginous yeast via integrated cultivation technique using CO2 emissions from yeast fermentation. A maximum specific growth rate of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 of 0.284 (1/d) was obtained under an integrated cultivation and a maximum lipid yield of 1.339g/L was found after cultivation for 5 days, while 0.969g/L of lipid yield was obtained after day 6 of cultivation time by using CO2 from air. A high value of volumetric lipid production rate (QP, 0.
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The table below shows CO2 emissions for different forms of transport in the European Union. The Pie Chart shows the percentage of European Union funds being spent on different forms of transport. You
Traditional electrical power systems were essentially based on centralized and fuel
consuming power generation plants, where end-users were supplied via
unidirectional transmission and distribution grids.
The ocean absorbs a significant portion of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human
activities, equivalent to about one-third of the total emissions for the past 200 years from fossil
fuel combustion, cement production and land use change (Sabine et al., 2004). Uptake of CO2 by
the ocean benefits society by moderating the rate of climate change but also causes
unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry, decreasing the pH of the water and leading to a suite
of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification.
With a vision and a strategy the 21st century city will be green, a healthy place for all and will generate zero
net pollution. This book offers a vision and a strategy.
Productive urban landscapes have two huge challenges to address: CO2 emissions are projected to increase
by two-thirds in the next 20 years, and as the global food production increases so does the number of people
going hungry, with the number of urban hungry soaring.
The symbiotic relationship between a productive landscape and the human settlement system is as old as
At the global level, the relationship between population and environ-
mental impact is not easy to test in a way that leads to reliable and non-
spurious estimates. This is because of the lack of data on environmental
degradation covering a sufficiently large number of countries over a suffi-
ciently large period of time. It is for this reason that studies have tended to
focus on CO2 emissions and energy use, for which cross-country and time-
series data are available.
On behalf of its clients, PGGM Investments manages
several real estate investment portfolios structured
around listed real estate and private real estate.
PGGM Investments recognizes the impact real estate
has on the environment as well as on societal
systems, for instance with regard to CO2 emissions.
This document addresses PGGM Investments’ policy
on integrating material environmental, social and
governance (ESG) issues into our real estate
investments. The scope of this policy covers both
the listed and the private real estate portfolios.
The assessment, presented as ministers met in Amsterdam to discuss greening
transport, points out a series of flaws in the tests. First, various equipment that increases
vehicle weight, thereby adding to emissions, is not included. Growing use of seat
heaters, air conditioning and the like could be adding an extra 16 to 28 grams per
kilometer (g/km) to new car CO2 emissions, the agency says.
In addition, the popularity of 'chip tuning' diesel engines to improve their power also risks
wiping out the benefits of lower emissions from diesel fuel, and seems to boost PM
emissions by a factor of three.
Furthermore, says the report, even without factoring in non-tested equipment like air
conditioning, CO2 emissions from transport have gone up about 20% over the past
decade, as growth outstrips clean technology innovations.
An agreement from car manufacturers to cut CO2 to 140g/km by 2008, though likely to
be met, will not be enough to have a significant impact on emissions.
King, Heywood and others foresee the potential
for further improvements in new car fuel economy,
up to a 50% reduction in L/100 km by 2030-2035,
mainly through the wider penetration of technolo-
gies leading up to, and including, fully hybridized
vehicles. The introduction of grid-connected bat-
tery electric vehicles (probably first as “plug-in” hy-
brids) would also contribute to efficiency improve-
ment (in addition to fuel shifts toward electricity),
assuming sustained progress in battery technol-
The first approach has the drawback that assumptions need to be made about the average an‐
nual vehicle mileage. The second approach allows to derive for cars an average annual mileage
by confronting the car stock with the car transport demand that is derived in the MODAL and
TIME CHOICE module.
In the first version of PLANET the first approach was used. In the new version of PLANET, the
second approach is used.
The industry is still improving technologically. It is far more mature than in
1993, and new developments appear poised to bring costs down further and
to reduce the environmental impact of producing ethanol. In this report, we
examine various production technologies, beginning with input improve-
ments and then discussing process improvements, environmental technolo-
gies, and technologies involving coproducts. Finally, we look at niche
markets and briefly examine cellulosic conversion.
The European Physical Society (EPS) is an independent body funded by contributions from
national physical societies, other bodies and individual members. It represents over 100,000
physicists and can call on expertise in all areas where physics is involved.
The Position Paper consists of two parts, the EPS position, summarising the
recommendations, and a scientific/technical part. The scientific/technical part is essential to
the Position Paper as it contains all facts and arguments that form the basis of the EPS
(i) The objectiv...
Voluntary carbon offsets have been traded in relatively small volumes and on a
demonstration basis since the late 1980s. Some organizations, such as the Climate Trust
in Oregon, have many years of experience in purchasing and retiring offsets on behalf of
clients or customers (the Climate Trust was established in 1997 to assist new power
plants in Oregon to meet a state regulatory requirement for net CO2 emissions).
This document should be of interest to a broad audience
interested in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
to the atmosphere. It was developed for regulatory
organizations, project developers, and national and state
policymakers to increase awareness of existing and
developing monitoring, verification, and accounting
(MVA) techniques. Carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks are
a natural part of the carbon cycle; however, natural
terrestrial sinks are not sufficient to absorb all the
CO2 emitted to the atmosphere each year.
Since its inception in 1997, DOE’s Carbon Sequestration
Program – managed within FE and implemented by
NETL – has been developing both core and supporting
technologies through which CCS can become an
effective and economically viable option for reducing
CO2 emissions from coal-based power plants (NETL,
They find that the elasticity of CO2 emissions and energy are close to unity
(i.e., a 1% increase in population leads to an approximately 1% increase in
CO2 emissions). They do not estimate how these elasticities may vary with
population levels. All of these results are based on cross-sectional data for
1 year only. Finally, Shi (2003), again in the context of the IPAT model, uses
a panel of cross-sectional and time series data. Shi finds population elas-
ticities for CO2 of between 1.41 and 1.