Coal particle

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  • The toxicology of particles is an absorbing area of research in which to work and when we conceived this book, we wanted to capture some of the fascination that we feel about our profession. We are well-pleased with the result—everyone we invited to write a chapter agreed and almost everyone delivered a manuscript—a remarkable outcome in this time of conflicting deadlines. It is difficult to keep up with the sheer quantity of data that accumulates on particle toxicology.

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  • In many high-pressure and high-temperature reactions, important information concerning the chemical and physical processes can be obtained through study of the reactions at the very early stages (the first few seconds to 2-3 minutes) before secondary reactions occur. However, this is not easy to do because the equipment required to carry out such reactions must be relatively massive to contain the sample at the high pressures and high temperatures.

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  • In the meantime, the electric power sector has measures available today that could lead to mercury reductions of between twenty and eighty per cent. Two of the most important immediate steps include the adoption of the best available control technologies and investments in energy efficiency. Mercury control devices are being introduced successfully at regulated waste incinerators in Canada; however, these technologies are still in the early stages of development for coal-fired power plants.

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  • Areas with high concentrations of air-borne particulate matter are more likely to experience fogs, because these particles are preferred nucleation sites for water droplets. Smoke and soot are also very undesirable aesthetically. Soot is formed during combustion when the supply of oxygen is insufficient for complete conversion of carbon to carbon oxides. Its formation is mainly a problem in the combustion of liquid and solid fuels (oil, coal, or wood), because molecular-scale mixing of fuel and oxygen is not as easy here as it is in the combustion of natural gas (see below).

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  • Smog is another secondary pollutant. This term was developed to describe a substance that is a hybrid of smoke and fog. The SOx aerosols are one source of smog formation. As discussed earlier, sulfuric acid droplets, or sulfuric acid absorbed on the surface of soot and fly ash particles, can attract moisture from the air to form what is often referred to as conventional or ‘classical’ smog.

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