This paper presents a method for interpreting metaphoric language in the context of a portable natural language interface. The method licenses metaphoric uses via coercions between incompatible ontological sorts. The machinery allows both previously-known and unexpected metaphoric uses to be correctly interpreted and evaluated with respect to the backend expert system.
The interpretation of coercion constructions (to begin a book) has been recently considered as resulting from the operation of type changing. For instance, a phrase of type o (object) is coerced to a phrase of type e (event) under the influence of the predicate. We show that this procedure encounters empirical difficulties. Focussing on the begin/commencer case, we show that the coercion interpretation results both from general semantic processes and properties of the predicate, and we argue that it is best represented at the lexical level. ...
Ever since the economic relationship between China and Taiwan began to explode in the early 1990s, U.S. policymakers have been concerned that China could exploit these economic ties to coerce Taiwan into making political concessions concerning the two entities
Men journey together with a view to particular advantage and by way of providing some particular thing needed for the purpose of life, and similarly the political association seems to have come together originally. . . for the sake of the general advantage it brings. Aristotle1 Unless the number of individuals in a group is quite small, or unless there is coercion, . . .rational, self-interested individuals will not act to achieve their common or group interest. In other words, even if all. . . would gain if, as a group, they acted to achieve their common interest or...
Lập kế hoạch học tập (KHHT) thích hợp và phù hợp với khả
năng: tùy theo khả năng của mình các bạn có thể lập KHHT từ
3,5 năm đến 4,5 năm. Tuy nhiên nếu học lực của mình không
phải là xuất sắc thì các bạn nên lập KHHT trong 4 năm là vừa
(trung bình 1 học kỳ 17 – 18 tín chỉ); các bạn không nên sắp quá
nhiều môn thực tập trong một học kỳ vì các bạn phải đầu tư rất
nhiều thời gian cho các môn này nếu muốn có kết quả tốt. Bên...
THE main issue in present-day social and political conflicts is
whether or not man should give away freedom, private initiative,
and individual responsibility and surrender to the
guardianship of a gigantic apparatus of compulsion and coercion,
the socialist state.
When small, independent providers want to
negotiate with multiple health plans, large
insurers exert enormous pressure to stop them.
The statewide trade group for doctors in New
York sued UnitedHealth Group Inc., the nation’s
second-largest health insurer by enrollment, for
allegedly using illegal coercion in just such a
scheme to limit competition.26
In a separate matter UnitedHealth agreed to pay
$400 million to settle multiple suits alleging
price fixing and other anti-competitive
Sexual harassment offline is a well-known, highly prevalent, extensively investigated, and intensively
treated social problem. An accepted model classifies sexual harassment behaviors into the categories
of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Theory and research show that
sexual harassment behavior occurs as a product of person × situation characteristics and has substantial
personal and organizational costs.
The basic question of the longer work that volume one introduces is a
deceptively simple one: What sorts of conduct may the state rightly make
criminal? Philosophers have attempted to answer this question by proposing
what I call "liberty-limiting principles" (or equivalently, "coercion-legitimizing
principles") which state that a given type of consideration is always a
morally relevant reason in support of penal legislation even if other reasons
may in the circumstances outweigh it.
The reliability of the DPD results depends crucially on the assumption that the
instruments are valid. This can be checked by employing the Hansen test of
overidentifying restrictions. A rejection of the null hypothesis that instruments are
uncorrelated to errors would indicate inconsistent estimates. In addition, we also
present test statistics for second-order serial correlation in the error process.
XXVIII. INTERFERENCE BY TAXATION 1. The Neutral Tax
keep the social apparatus of coercion and compulsion running requires expenditure of labor and commodities. Under a liberal system of government these expenditures are small compared with the sum of the individuals
So then you may think that the population-poverty-resource nexus would be a focus of
attention among development economists. If so, you would be wrong. Even in studies on the
semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian sub-continent (poverty-ridden land
masses, inhabited by some 2 billion people and experiencing the largest additions ever known
to their population; Tables 1-2), the nexus is largely absent. For example,Birdsall (1988),Kelley
(1988) and Schultz (1988) are authoritative surveys by economic demographers on population
growth in poor countries.
The importance of SRH to the attainment of international development goals
has not been adequately translated into action frameworks and monitoring
mechanisms at international, regional and national levels. Advances have been
hindered by the complexity of the concept. Different components of SRH fall
within the province of different sectoral ministries, challenging coordinated
national responses. Many national planners learned development economics
before the recent analytical advances on the effect of age structures on poverty
Patients provide valid informed consent to a treatment or a
diagnostic procedure if they have sufficient capacity, have been
given appropriate information, and give consent freely without coercion
or undue influence. When a patient’s capacity for treatment
consent is in doubt, a clinician must determine whether the patient
indeed has the capacity. It is a common reason behind requests for
psychiatric consultations in a general hospital (Appelbaum, 2007).
Ambiguous propositions are analyzed in a type system where disambiguation is effected during assembly (i.e. by coercion). Ambiguity is introduced through a layer of types that are underspecified relative to a pre-existing collection of dependent types, construed as unambiguous propositions. A simple system of reasoning directly with such underspecification is described, and shown to be sound and complete for the full range of disambiguations. Beyond erasing types, the system supports constraints on disambiguations, including co-variation. ...
. All of these sources, Sharp points out, depend on the obedience and cooperation of those subject
to the power ... to nonviolent action; cf., “One and the wnie principle underlies a11 these various
manifestations [forms of nonviolent coercion], and that is a strategic recognition of ...