Cognitive processes

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  • Changing time, timely change, change creating time, time measuring changeÐthe themes of this book are change and time in various per- mutations and combinations. The book also deals with nonlinearity, chaos, randomness, and stochastic models, the use of computers to study complicated systems of di¨erential equations, systems theory, complemen- tarity, the importance of formal models, methods from physics and mathe- matics for the analysis of cognitive systems, and interdisciplinarity, among other topics.

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  • It is an exciting time for the discipline of cognitive neuroscience. In the past 10 years we have witnessed an explosion in the development and advancement of methods that allow us to precisely examine the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging, for example, has provided markedly improved spatial and temporal resolution of brain structure and function, which has led to answers to new questions, and the reexamination of old questions.

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  • If the saturated phenomenon encompasses excessive phenomena, it can also account for extremely empty and poor phenomena. This process of inversion and turnaround between two extremes in perception is certainly due to the ‘negative’ qualities of Marion’s philosophy and of the French phenomenological new wave in general 4 . Poor phenomena become saturated into an equilibrium system between the empty and the full, the excess and the lack.

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  • Tham khảo bài thuyết trình 'chapter 5: the communication process', kinh doanh - tiếp thị, internet marketing phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Cognition encompasses the scientific study of the human mind and how it processes information; it focuses on one of the most difficult of all mysteries that humans have addressed. The mind is an enormously complex system holding a unique position in science: by necessity, we must use the mind to study itself, and so the focus of study and the instrument used for study are recursively linked. The sheer tenacity of human curiosity has in our own lifetimes brought answers to many of the most challenging scientific questions we have had the ambition to ask.

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  • We pose the development of cognitively plausible models of human language processing as a challenge for computational linguistics. Existing models can only deal with isolated phenomena (e.g., garden paths) on small, specifically selected data sets. The challenge is to build models that integrate multiple aspects of human language processing at the syntactic, semantic, and discourse level. Like human language processing, these models should be incremental, predictive, broad coverage, and robust to noise. ...

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  • Computational linguistics is generally considered to be the branch of engineering that uses computers to do useful things with linguistic signals, but it can also be viewed as an extended test of computational theories of human cognition; it is this latter perspective that psychologists find most interesting. Language provides a critical test for the hypothesis that physical symbol systems are adequate to perform all human cognitive functions.

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  • This paper outlines the linguistic semantic commitments underlying an application which automatically constructs depictions of verbal spatial descriptions. Our approach draws on the ideational view of linguistic semantics developed by Ronald Langacker in his theory of Cognitive Grammar, and the conceptual representation of physical objects from the two-level semantics of Bierwisch and Lang. In particular the dimensions of the process of conventwnal imagery are used as a metric for the design of our own conceptual representation. ...

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  • This paper explores the relationshiDs between a computational meory of temporal representation (as developed by James Alien) and a Iormal linguiStiC theory Of tense (as developed by NorOert Hornstem) and aspect.

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  • The analysis of reading times can provide insights into the processes that underlie language comprehension, with longer reading times indicating greater cognitive load. There is evidence that the language processor is highly predictive, such that prior context allows upcoming linguistic material to be anticipated. Previous work has investigated the contributions of semantic and syntactic contexts in isolation, essentially treating them as independent factors.

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  • Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This paper introduces a novel sentence processing model that consists of a parser augmented with a probabilistic logic-based model of coreference resolution, which allows us to simulate how context interacts with syntax in a reading task. Our simulations show that a Weakly Interactive cognitive architecture can explain data which had been provided as evidence for the Strongly Interactive hypothesis. ...

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  • Experimental studies of interactive language use have shed light on the cognitive and interpersonal processes that shape conversation; corpora are the emergent products of these processes. I will survey studies that focus on under-modelled aspects of interactive language use, including the processing of spontaneous speech and disfluencies; metalinguistic displays such as hedges; interactive processes that affect choices of referring expressions; and how communication media shape conversations. The findings suggest some agendas for computational linguistics. ...

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  • Current models of story comprehension have three major deficiencies: (1) lack of experimental support for the inference processes they involve (e.g. reliance on prediction); (2) indifference to 'kinds' of coherence (e.g. local and global); and (3) inability to find interpretations at variable depths. I propose that comprehension is driven by the need to find a representation that reaches a 'coherence threshold'. Variable inference processes are a reflection of different thresholds, and the skepticism of an individual inference process determines how thresholds are reached. ...

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  • Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences Brown University Providence, RI, USA correction, the approximation is poor for hierarchical models, which are commonly used for NLP applications. We derive an improved O(1) formula that gives exact values for the expected counts in non-hierarchical models. For hierarchical models, where our formula is not exact, we present an efficient method for sampling from the HDP (and related models, such as the hierarchical PitmanYor process) that considerably decreases the memory footprint of such models as compared to the naive implementation. ...

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  • How can grammar be viewed as a functional part of a cognitive system) Given a neural basis for the processing control paradigm of language performance, what roles does 'Sgrammar" play? Is there evidence to suggest that grammatical processing can be independent from other aspects of language processing? This paper w i l l focus on these issues and suggest answers within the context of one computational solution. The example model of sentence comprehension.

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  • We investigate linguistic features that correlate with the readability of texts for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Based on a corpus of texts (including some experimentally measured for comprehension by adults with ID), we analyze the significance of novel discourselevel features related to the cognitive factors underlying our users’ literacy challenges. We develop and evaluate a tool for automatically rating the readability of texts for these users. Our experiments show that our discourselevel, cognitively-motivated features improve automatic readability assessment....

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  • The Routledge Companion to Translation Studies brings together clear, detailed essays from leading international scholars on major areas in translation studies today. This accessible and authoritative guide offers fresh perspectives on linguistics, context, culture, politics and ethics and contains a range of contributions on emerging areas such as cognitive theories, technology, interpreting and audiovisual translation. Supported by an extensive glossary of key concepts and a substantial bibliography, this Companion is an essential....

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  • This new book discusses academic writing as a complex task which involves a variety of cognitive and metacognitive activities; a model for teaching writing strategies and the sociocultural processes of written communication; rubric-referenced self-assessment and the quality of elementary and middle-school students' writing and self-efficacy and others.

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  • When we began as editors of Lawrence Erlbaum Associates’ Organization and Management Series, our lofty aim was to publish works, both theoretical and empirical ones, that would nudge the boundaries of organization studies. Lord and Brown’s book admirably achieves this aim. The authors present an innovative theory that, we predict, will drive empirical research. The theory supplies a new way to think about an old topic, leadership. It does so by drawing heavily on ideas about social cognition and self-regulation. Reading Lord and Brown’s book is truly eye-opening. Enjoy the adventure....

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  • The percent literate in the SEC is substantially higher than indicated for the population 60 and over in the 1998 census. This largely reflects a process of cohort succession through which persons who were 54-59 in 1998, and thus not part of the 60+ population at that time, aged into the 60 and over population by 2004 while at the same time some persons who were 60 or over in 1998 died, especially among the oldest age groups. Since literacy was generally increasing over time in Cambodia, the average literacy level of younger cohorts who moved into the...

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