The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.
This report originated in 1999 as a result of discussions between the Committee on
Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and officials within NASA’s Office of Space Science Sun-
Earth Connections program. As noted in the statement of task (Appendix A), the objective
of the study was to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of
magnetized plasmas in the solar system. By emphasizing the connections between
locally occurring (solar system) structures and processes and their astrophysical counterparts,
the study would contribute to a unified view of cosmic plasma behavior.
Coherent Lightwave Systems
The lightwave systems discussed so far are based on a simple digital modulation scheme in which an electrical bit stream modulates the intensity of an optical carrier inside the optical transmitter and the optical signal transmitted through the ﬁber link is incident directly on an optical receiver, which converts it to the original digital signal in the electrical domain. Such a scheme is referred to as intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD).